Smarter Than You Think
eBook - ePub

Smarter Than You Think

How Technology is Changing Our Minds for the Better

Clive Thompson

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eBook - ePub

Smarter Than You Think

How Technology is Changing Our Minds for the Better

Clive Thompson

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Information

Year
2013
ISBN
9780007427789

Notes

Chapter 1: The Rise of the Centaurs
1. In the eighteenth century, Wolfgang von Kempelen caused a stir: Tom Standage, The Turk: The Life and Times of the Famous Eighteenth-Century Chess-Playing Machine (New York: Walker Publishing Company, 2002), 22–28, 102–19, 194–221.
2. In 1915, a Spanish inventor unveiled a genuine, honest-to-goodness robot: “Torres and His Remarkable Automatic Devices,” Scientific American Supplement, No. 2079 (November 6, 1915): 296–98.
3. Faced with a machine that could calculate two hundred million positions a second: “Deep Blue,” IBM, accessed March 19, 2013, www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/ibm100/us/en/icons/deepblue/.
4. “I lost my fighting spirit”: Bruce Weber, “Swift and Slashing, Computer Topples Kasparov,” The New York Times, May 12, 1997, accessed March 19, 2013, www.nytimes.com/1997/05/12/nyregion/swift-and-slashing-computer-topples-kasparov.html.
5. “emptied completely”: Frederic Friedel, “Garry Kasparov vs. Deep Blue,” ChessBase, May 1997, accessed March 19, 2013, www.chessbase.com/columns/column.asp?pid=146.
6. “The Brain’s Last Stand”: Newsweek, May 5, 1997.
7. Doomsayers predicted that chess itself was over: Garry Kasparov, “The Chess Master and the Computer,” The New York Review of Books, February 11, 2010, accessed March 19, 2013, www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2010/feb/11/the-chess-master-and-the-computer/.
8. Then Kasparov did something unexpected: Portions of my writing on advanced chess appeared in Clive Thompson, “The Cyborg Advantage,” Wired, April 2010, accessed March 21, 2013, www.wired.com/magazine/2010/03/st_thompson_cyborgs/.
9. Chess grand masters had predicted for years: Kasparov, “The Chess Master and the Computer.”
10. Human chess players learn by spending years studying: Garry Kasparov, How Life Imitates Chess: Making the Right Moves, from the Board to the Boardroom (New York: Bloomsbury, 2010), Kindle edition.
11. If you go eight moves out in a game of chess: Kasparov, “The Chess Master and the Computer.”
12. “One, the best one”: Diego Rasskin-Gutman, Chess Metaphors: Artificial Intelligence and the Human Mind, trans. Deborah Klosky (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2009), 50.
13. Together, they would form what chess players later called a centaur … fought Kasparov to a 3–3 draw: Kasparov, How Life Imitates Chess, Kindle edition.
14. In 2005, there was a “freestyle” chess tournament: My account of the 2005 “freestyle” chess tournament comes from personal interviews with Steven Cramton and Zackary Stephen, as well as these reports: Kasparov, How Life Imitates Chess; Kasparov, “The Chess Master and the Computer”; Steven Cramton and Zackary Stephen, “The Dark Horse Theory,” Chess Horizons, October–December 2005, 17–20, 40, accessed March 19, 2013, masschess.org/Chess_Horizons/Articles/2005-10_sample.pdf; “PAL / CSS report from the dark horse’s mouth,” ChessBase, June 6, 2005, accessed March 19, 2013, en.chessbase.com/home/TabId/211/PostId/4002467.
15. Hydra, the most powerful chess computer in existence: My description of Hydra comes from an e-mail interview with Hydra’s creator, Chrilly Donninger, and the following reports: Tom Mueller, “Your Move,” The New Yorker, December 12, 2005, 62–69; Jon Speelman, “Chess,” The Observer (UK), July 3, 2005, 19; Dylan Loeb McClain, “In Chess, Masters Again Fight Machines,” The New York Times, June 21, 2005, accessed March 19, 2013, www.nytimes.com/2005/06/21/arts/21mast.html.
16. with software you could buy for sixty dollars: Mueller, “Your Move,” 65.
17. The “extended mind” theory of cognition … short-term memory: I owe much of my discussion of the extended mind to the work of Andy Clark, specifically Natural-Born Cyborgs: Minds, Technologies, and the Future of Human Intelligence (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003); Supersizing the Mind: Embodiment, Action, and Cognitive Extension (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008); and a personal interview with the author.
18. “These resources enable us to pursue”: Andy Clark, “Magic Words: How Language Augments Human Computation,” in Language and Thought: Interdisciplinary Themes, eds. Peter Carruthers and Jill Boucher (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1998), 173.
19. “I actually did the work on the paper”: Clark, Supersizing the Mind, xxv.
20. The printed word helped make our cognition linear and abstract: Walter Ong, Orality and Literacy (New York: Routledge, 2010). I’m thinking specifically about his argument in the chapter “Writing Restructures Consciousness,” 77–114.
21. “It is impossible that old prejudices and hostilities should longer exist”: Charles F. Briggs and Augustus Maverick, The Story of the Telegraph, and a History of the Great Atlantic Cable (New York: Rudd & Carleton, 1858), 22. Accessed March 19, 2013, via Google Books, books.google.com/books?id=NFVHAAAAIAAJ.
22. “We are eager to tunnel under the Atlantic”: Henry D. Thoreau, Walden: A Fully Annotated Edition, ed. Jeffrey S. Cramer (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2004), 50–51.
23. called this the bias of a new tool: Harold Innis, The Bias of Communication, introduction by Alexander John Watson (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2008).
24. “tools for thought”: Rheingold introduced the term in his 1985 book of that title, reprinted in 2000: Howard Rheingold, Tools for Thought: The History and Future of Mind-Expanding Technology (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2000).
25. “The future is already here”: Garson O’Toole, “The Future Has Arrived—It’s Just Not Evenly Distributed Yet,” Quote Investigator, January 24, 2012, accessed March 19, 2013, quoteinvestigator.com/2012/01/24/future-has-arrived/.
26. “that horrible mass of books which keeps on growing … return to barbarism”: Blair, Too Much to Know, Kindle edition.
27. In the sixteenth century, humanity faced: My analysis of early publishing here owes much to Ann Blair’s book Too Much to Know: Managing Scholarly Information before the Modern Age (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2011), Kindle edition, and a personal interview with the author.
28. “I’m not thinking the way I used to think”: Nicholas Carr, The Shallows (New York: Norton, 2010), 5.
29. precisely why societies have engineered massive social institutions: I owe this point to Stephen Pinker, “Mind over Mass Media,” The New York Times, June 10, 2010, last accessed March 19, 2013, www.nytimes.com/2010/06/11/opinion/11Pinker.html.
30. “There will eventually be neuroscientific explanations”: Gary Marcus, “Neuroscience Fiction,” News Desk (a New Yorker blog), Dec. 2, 2012, accessed March 19, 2013, www.newyorker.com/online/blogs/newsdesk/2012/12/what-neuroscience-really-teaches-us-and-what-it-doesnt.html.
31. a single brain-scanning study that specifically probed how people’s brains respond to using the Web: Carr, The Shallows, 120–22.
32. team...

Table of contents

  1. Title Page
  2. Copyright
  3. Praise
  4. Dedication
  5. Contents
  6. The Rise of the Centaurs
  7. We, the Memorious
  8. Public Thinking
  9. The New Literacies
  10. The Art of Finding
  11. The Puzzle-Hungry World
  12. Digital School
  13. Ambient Awareness
  14. The Connected Society
  15. Epilogue
  16. Notes
  17. Index
  18. Acknowledgments
  19. About the Author
  20. About the Publisher