Professional WordPress Plugin Development
eBook - ePub

Professional WordPress Plugin Development

Brad Williams, Justin Tadlock, John James Jacoby

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eBook - ePub

Professional WordPress Plugin Development

Brad Williams, Justin Tadlock, John James Jacoby

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Extend WordPress with plugins using this advanced WordPress development book, updated for the current version

This significantly updated edition of Professional WordPress Plugin Development addresses modern plugin development for WordPress, the highly popular content management system (CMS). If you're using WordPress to create and manage websites, WordPress plugins are the software that can extend or enhance CMS functionality. This book offers guidance on writing plugins for WordPress sites to share or sell to other users.

The second edition of Professional WordPress Plugin Development covers the building of advanced plugin development scenarios. It discusses the plugin framework and coding standards as well as dashboards, settings, menus, and related application programming interfaces (APIs). Additional topics include security, performance, data validation, and SQL statements.

• Learn about the power of hooks in WordPress

• Discover how JavaScript and Ajax will work in your site

• Understand key technologies: Block Editor/Gutenberg, JS/React, PHP, and the REST API

• Create and use custom post types and taxonomies.

• Creating custom dashboard menus and plugin settings

• Work with users and user data

• Schedule tasks and utilizing Cron

• Performance and security considerations

Written by experienced plugin developers, Professional WordPress Plugin Development also helps you internationalize and localize your WordPress website. Find out about debugging systems and optimizing your site for speed. As WordPress use continues to increase, you can elevate your professional knowledge of how to extend WordPress through plugins.

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Diseño web

An Introduction to Plugins

WordPress is the most popular open source content management system available today. One of the primary reasons WordPress is so popular is the ease with which you can customize and extend WordPress through plugins. WordPress has an amazing framework in place that gives plugin developers the tools needed to extend WordPress in any way imaginable.
Understanding how plugins work, and the tools available in WordPress, is critical knowledge when developing professional WordPress plugins.


A plugin in WordPress is a PHP‐based script that extends or alters the core functionality of WordPress. Quite simply, plugins are files installed in WordPress to add a feature, or set of features, to WordPress. Plugins can range in complexity from a simple social networking plugin to an extremely elaborate eCommerce package. There is no limit to what a plugin can do in WordPress; because of this, there is no shortage of plugins available for download.

How Plugins Interact with WordPress

WordPress features many different APIs for use in your plugin. Each API, or application programming interface, helps interact with WordPress in a different way. The following are the main available APIs in WordPress and their function:
  • Plugin: Provides a set of hooks that enable plugins access to specific parts of WordPress. WordPress contains two different types of hooks: Actions and Filters. The Action hook enables you to trigger custom plugin code at specific points during execution. For example, you can trigger a custom function to run after a user registers a user account in WordPress. The Filter hook modifies text before adding it to or after retrieving it from the database.
  • Widgets: Allows you to create and manage widgets in your plugin. Widgets appear under the Appearance ➪ Widgets screen and are available to add to any registered sidebar in your theme. The API enables multiple instances of the same widget to be used throughout your sidebars.
  • Shortcode: Adds shortcode support to your plugin. A shortcode is a simple hook that enables you to call a PHP function by adding something such as [shortcode] to a post or page.
  • HTTP: Sends HTTP requests from your plugin. This API retrieves content from an external URL or for submitting content to a URL. Currently you have five different ways to send an HTTP request. This API standardizes that process and tests each method prior to executing. Based on your server configuration, the API will use the appropriate method and make the request.
  • REST API: Allows developers to interact with your WordPress website remotely by sending and receiving JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) objects. You can create, read, update, and delete (CRUD) content within WordPress. The REST API is covered extensively in Chapter 12, “REST API.”
  • Settings: Inserts settings or a settings section for your plugin. The primary advantage to using the Settings API is security. All settings data is scrubbed, so you do not need to worry about cross‐site request forgery (CSRF) and cross‐site scripting (XSS) attacks when saving plugin settings.
  • Options: Stores and retrieves options in your plugin. This API features the capability to create new options, update existing options, delete options, and retrieve any option already defined.
  • Dashboard Widgets: Creates Dashboard widgets. Widgets automatically appear on the WordPress Dashboard and contain all standard customization features including minimize, drag/drop, and screen options for hiding.
  • Rewrite: Creates custom rewrite rules in your plugin. This API enables you to add static endpoints ( /custom‐page/), structure tags ( %postname%), and feed links ( /feed/json/).
  • Transients: Creates temporary options (cached data) in your plugins. This API is similar to the Options API, but all options are saved with an expiration time.
  • Database: Accesses the WordPress database. This includes creating, updating, deleting, and retrieving database records for use in your plugins.
  • Theme Customization (Customize) API: Adds custom website and theme options to the WordPress Customizer. Theme customizations are displayed in a real‐time preview prior to publishing to the live website.
There are additional, lesser known APIs that exist within the WordPress Core software. To view a full list, visit the Core Developer Handbook:
WordPress also features pluggable functions. These functions enable you to override specific core functions in a plugin. For example, the wp_mail() function is a pluggable function. You can easily define this function in your plugin and send email using the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) rather than the default method. All pluggable functions are defined in the /wp‐includes/pluggable.php WordPress Core file.
As an example, let's look at the wp_mail() pluggable functi...