40 Algorithms Every Programmer Should Know
eBook - ePub

40 Algorithms Every Programmer Should Know

Hone your problem-solving skills by learning different algorithms and their implementation in Python

Imran Ahmad

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  1. 382 pagine
  2. English
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eBook - ePub

40 Algorithms Every Programmer Should Know

Hone your problem-solving skills by learning different algorithms and their implementation in Python

Imran Ahmad

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Informazioni sul libro

Learn algorithms for solving classic computer science problems with this concise guide covering everything from fundamental algorithms, such as sorting and searching, to modern algorithms used in machine learning and cryptography

Key Features

  • Learn the techniques you need to know to design algorithms for solving complex problems
  • Become familiar with neural networks and deep learning techniques
  • Explore different types of algorithms and choose the right data structures for their optimal implementation

Book Description

Algorithms have always played an important role in both the science and practice of computing. Beyond traditional computing, the ability to use algorithms to solve real-world problems is an important skill that any developer or programmer must have. This book will help you not only to develop the skills to select and use an algorithm to solve real-world problems but also to understand how it works.You'll start with an introduction to algorithms and discover various algorithm design techniques, before exploring how to implement different types of algorithms, such as searching and sorting, with the help of practical examples. As you advance to a more complex set of algorithms, you'll learn about linear programming, page ranking, and graphs, and even work with machine learning algorithms, understanding the math and logic behind them. Further on, case studies such as weather prediction, tweet clustering, and movie recommendation engines will show you how to apply these algorithms optimally. Finally, you'll become well versed in techniques that enable parallel processing, giving you the ability to use these algorithms for compute-intensive tasks.By the end of this book, you'll have become adept at solving real-world computational problems by using a wide range of algorithms.

What you will learn

  • Explore existing data structures and algorithms found in Python libraries
  • Implement graph algorithms for fraud detection using network analysis
  • Work with machine learning algorithms to cluster similar tweets and process Twitter data in real time
  • Predict the weather using supervised learning algorithms
  • Use neural networks for object detection
  • Create a recommendation engine that suggests relevant movies to subscribers
  • Implement foolproof security using symmetric and asymmetric encryption on Google Cloud Platform (GCP)

Who this book is for

This book is for programmers or developers who want to understand the use of algorithms for problem-solving and writing efficient code. Whether you are a beginner looking to learn the most commonly used algorithms in a clear and concise way or an experienced programmer looking to explore cutting-edge algorithms in data science, machine learning, and cryptography, you'll find this book useful. Although Python programming experience is a must, knowledge of data science will be helpful but not necessary.

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Informazioni

Anno
2020
ISBN
9781789809862

Section 1: Fundamentals and Core Algorithms

This section introduces us to the core aspects of algorithms. We will explore what an algorithm is and how to design it, and also learn about the data structures used in algorithms. This section also gives a deep idea on sorting and searching algorithms along with the algorithms to solve graphical problems. The chapters included in this section are:
  • Chapter 1, Overview of Algorithms
  • Chapter 2, Data Structures used in Algorithms
  • Chapter 3, Sorting and Searching Algorithms
  • Chapter 4, Designing Algorithms
  • Chapter 5, Graph Algorithms

Overview of Algorithms

This book covers the information needed to understand, classify, select, and implement important algorithms. In addition to explaining their logic, this book also discusses data structures, development environments, and production environments that are suitable for different classes of algorithms. We focus on modern machine learning algorithms that are becoming more and more important. Along with the logic, practical examples of the use of algorithms to solve actual everyday problems are also presented.
This chapter provides an insight into the fundamentals of algorithms. It starts with a section on the basic concepts needed to understand the workings of different algorithms. This section summarizes how people started using algorithms to mathematically formulate a certain class of problems. It also mentions the limitations of different algorithms. The next section explains the various ways to specify the logic of an algorithm. As Python is used in this book to write the algorithms, how to set up the environment to run the examples is explained. Then, the various ways that an algorithm's performance can be quantified and compared against other algorithms are discussed. Finally, this chapter discusses various ways a particular implementation of an algorithm can be validated.
To sum up, this chapter covers the following main points:
  • What is an algorithm?
  • Specifying the logic of an algorithm
  • Introducing Python packages
  • Algorithm design techniques
  • Performance analysis
  • Validating an algorithm

What is an algorithm?

In the simplest terms, an algorithm is a set of rules for carrying out some calculations to solve a problem. It is designed to yield results for any valid input according to precisely defined instructions. If you look up the word algorithm in an English language dictionary (such as American Heritage), it defines the concept as follows:
"An algorithm is a finite set of unambiguous instructions that, given some set of initial conditions, can be performed in a prescribed sequence to achieve a certain goal and that has a recognizable set of end conditions."
Designing an algorithm is an effort to create a mathematical recipe in the most efficient way that can effectively be used to solve a real-world problem. This recipe may be used as the basis for developing a more reusable and generic mathematical solution that can be applied to a wider set of similar problems.

The phases of an algorithm

The different phases of developing, deploying, and finally using an algorithm are illustrated in the following diagram:
As we can see, the process starts with understanding the requirements from the problem statement that detail what needs to be done. Once the problem is clearly stated, it leads us to the development phase.
The development phase consists of two phases:
  • The design phase: In the design phase, the architecture, logic, and implementation details of the algorithm are envisioned and documented. While designing an algorithm, we keep both accuracy and performance in mind. While searching for the solution to a given problem, in many cases we will end up having more than one alternative algorithm. The design phase of an algorithm is an iterative process that involves comparing different candidate algorithms. Some algorithms may provide simple and fast solutions but may compromise on accuracy. Other algorithms may be very accurate but may take considerable time to run due to their complexity. Some of these complex algorithms may be more efficient than others. Before making a choice, all the inherent tradeoffs of the candidate algorithms should be carefully studied. Particularly for a complex problem, designing an efficient algorithm is really important. A correctly designed algorithm will result in an efficient solution that will be capable of providing both satisfactory performance and reasonable accuracy at the same time.
  • The coding phase: In the coding phase, the designed algorithm is converted into a computer program. It is important that the actual program implements all the logic and architecture suggested in the design phase.
The designing and coding phases of an algorithm are iterative in nature. Coming up with a design that meets both functional and non-functional requirements may take lots of time and effort. Functional requirements are those requirements that dictate what the right output for a given set of input data is. Non-functional requirements of an algorithm are mostly about the performance for a given size of data. Validation and performance analysis of an algorithm are discussed later in this chapter. Validating an algorithm is about verifying that an algorithm meets its functional requirements. Performance analysis of an algorithm is about verifying that it meets its main non-functional requirement: performance.
Once designed and implemented in a programming language of your choice, the code of the algorithm is ready to be deployed. Deploying an algorithm involves the design of the actual production environment where the code will run. The production environment needs to be designed according to the data and processing needs of the algorithm. For example, for parallelizable algorithms, a cluster with an appropriate number of computer nodes will be needed for the efficient execution of the algorithm. For data-intensive algorithms, a data ingress pipeline and the strategy to cache and store data may need to be designed. Designing a production environment is discussed in more detail in Chapter 13, Large Scale Algorithms, and Chapter 14, Practical Considerations. Once the production environment is designed and implemented, the algorithm is deployed, which takes the input data, processes it, and generates the output as per the requirements.

Specifying the logic of an algorithm

When designing an algorithm, it is important to find different ways to specify its details. The ability to capture both its logic and architecture is required. Generally, just like ...

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