Design and Contracting Requirements
Applicable MasterFormatTM Sections
Sustainable Building Design
Bidding and Negotiation
Construction Contract Administration
Acknowledgments and References
Many factors influence an architect's work related to building design and construction contract administration. In addition to architectural design, an architect must be aware of and conversant in site, structural, mechanical, and electrical design. He or she must also be aware of the legal constraints, such as codes, laws, and regulations, and of the many industry standards that influence design and construction. An architect must also be knowledgeable and conversant in the production of construction documents and must understand the means and methods used in constructing buildings. He or she must understand the construction process and be able to render an architect's services during the construction phase of a building project regardless of the construction contract type or employment by the owner of a construction manager. He or she must understand the financial constraints on building construction and be able to design within those constraints. And in all of these, an architect must not be just a jack-of-all-trades; he or she must be a master of them all.
This chapter covers facets of the building design and construction process that a professional must understand to be able to carry out an architect's responsibilities in the design and construction of buildings. The chapter also addresses the function of a construction manager in the construction process and the architect's relationship to a construction manager. Chapters 2 through 22 address construction materials and methods of design and construction of which an architect must be knowledgeable. Chapter 23 addresses the fundamental properties of materials. Chapter 24 describes the metric system of measurement.
The first five parts of this chapter discuss some of the many factors affecting building design.
Sections 1.6, 1.7, and 1.8 discuss the services architects provide related to a building construction project. The American Institute of Architects (AIA) has divided an architect's services into the categories basic and additional.
Basic services are those included in standard services contracts developed by AIA and included in the architect's basic fee for services.
Additional services are optional and are performed only when agreed to by the architect and the owner, with additional compensation to the architect.
Following the flow of a project from conception to the completion of the warranty period (one year after construction completion), an architect's services can be broken down into predesign services, design services, construction services, postconstruction services, and supplemental services.
Predesign services are additional services. They include such acts as programming, existing facilities studies, project budgeting, and site analysis.
Basic services include design and construction services. Design services are further broken down into schematic design, design development (a further refinement of schematic design documents), and construction documents services.
Construction services include services performed during the bidding and negotiation phase and those performed during the construction contract administration phase.
Postconstruction services are additional services performed after substantial completion of the building. They include such acts as maintenance and operational programming, record drawings, start-up assistance, and warranty review.
Supplemental services are additional services. They include such items as renderings, models, life cycle cost analysis, quantity surveys, graphic design, and many others.
Section 1.9 addresses the function of a construction manager related to a construction project and a construction manager's relationships to the owner, the architect, and the contractor.
Applicable MasterFormatTM Sections
The following MasterFormatTM 2010 Update Level 2 sections are applicable to this chapter.
|00 11 00 Advertisements and Invitations|
|00 21 00 Instructions|
|00 22 00 Supplementary Instructions|
|00 23 00 Procurement Definitions|
|00 24 00 Procurement Scopes|
|00 25 00 Procurement Meetings|
|00 26 00 Procurement Substitution Procedures|
|00 31 00 Available Project Information|
|00 41 00 Bid Forms|
|00 42 00 Proposal Forms|
|00 43 00 Procurement Form Supplements|
|00 45 00 Representations and Certifications|
|00 51 00 Notice of Award|
|00 52 00 Agreement Forms|
|00 54 00 Agreement Form Supplements|
|00 55 00 Notice to Proceed|
|00 61 00 Bond Forms|
|00 62 00 Certificates and Other Forms|
|00 63 00 Clarification and Modification Forms|
|00 65 00 Closeout Forms|
|00 71 00 Contracting Definitions|
|00 72 00 General Conditions|
|00 73 00 Supplementary Conditions|
|00 91 00 Precontract Revisions|
|00 93 00 Record Clarifications and Proposals|
|00 94 00 Record Modifications|
|01 11 00 Summary of Work|
|01 12 00 Multiple Contract Summary|
|01 14 00 Work Restrictions|
|01 18 00 Project Utility Sources|
|01 21 00 Allowances|
|01 22 00 Unit Prices|
|01 23 00 Alternates|
|01 24 00 Value Analysis|
|01 25 00 Substitution Procedures|
|01 26 00 Contract Modification Procedures|
|01 29 00 Payment Procedures|
|01 31 00 Project Management and Coordination|
|01 32 00 Construction Progress Documentation|
|01 33 00 Submittal Procedures|
|01 35 00 Special Procedures|
|01 41 00 Regulatory Requirements|
|01 42 00 References|
|01 43 00 Quality Assurance|
|01 45 00 Quality Control|
|01 51 00 Temporary Utilities|
|01 52 00 Construction Facilities|
|01 53 00 Temporary Construction|
|01 54 00 Construction Aids|
|01 55 00 Vehicular Access and Parking|
|01 56 00 Temporary Barriers and Enclosures|
|01 57 00 Temporary Controls|
|01 58 00 Project Identification|
|01 61 00 Common Product Requirements|
|01 62 00 Product Options|
|01 64 00 Owner-Furnished Products|
|01 65 00 Product Delivery Requirements|
|01 66 00 Product Storage and Handling Requirements|
|01 71 00 Examination and Preparation|
|01 73 00 Execution|
|01 74 00 Cleaning and Waste Management|
|01 75 00 Starting and Adjusting|
|01 76 00 Protecting Installed Construction|
|01 77 00 Closeout Procedures|
|01 78 00 Closeout Submittals|
|01 79 00 Demonstration and Training|
|01 80 00 Performance Requirements|
|01 91 00 Commissioning|
|01 92 00 Facility Operation|
|01 93 00 Facility Maintenance|
|01 94 00 Facility Decommissioning|
1.1 Building Design
An architect's first and primary contractual responsibility related to building construction is design. Building design requires training, experience, an aesthetic sense, and an understanding of certain basic principles. Among these principles are (1) the objectives good design should strive for, (2) an architect's responsibilities related to design, (3) basic building use and shape types, and (4) available construction systems and methods.
1.1.1 DESIGN OBJECTIVES
An architect's primary design objective should be to produce buildings that serve their intended purpose and that permit the activities that take place in them to proceed with appropriate dispatch and ease. They should be efficient in their use and operation. In addition, commercial buildings should be capable of producing a profit.
An architect's buildings should be of good-quality construction, and should be able to be built at as low a cost as is practicable. An architect's designs should produce individual buildings that are aesthetically pleasing and that do not diminish the beauty of or reduce the quality of the natural environment around them. They should also produce the most practicable conservation of energy and the least practicable degradation of the environment.
220.127.116.11 Environmental Considerations
In addition to his or her responsibility to the public as defined by law and ethical considerations, an architect bears a responsibility to protect and maintain the environment. One factor in fulfilling this responsibility is to design buildings for sustainability, as discussed in Section 1.5. But protecting the environment goes far beyond designing green buildings. It also entails consideration of how a building works and how it fits into its environment. This concern must be considered not just for the present, but also throughout the life of the building.
A building should be designed so that it fits within its site and does not overpower the environment. Fitting is accomplished by placing and orientating building elements to take the best advantage of sun angles, site features, and prevailing weather patterns such as wind. Where practicable, earth-sheltered design and passive solar design can be used to reduce heating and cooling loads on a building. Refer to Section 16.6 for a discussion of solar heating and cooling.
Whenever possible, buildings should be sited so as to preserve as much of the existing vegetation and land features as is practicable. Means should also be provided to assure the protection of existing preservable vegetation and land features, such as wetlands and waterways, from damage during construction.
Where possible, construction waste should be reduced to the smallest amount possible, which can be aided by selecting materials that have little waste and by employing off-site prefabrication of building elements. Debris and waste should be recycled where possible, preferably on the construction site.
Most jurisdictions require the prevention of st...