The Orthodontic Mini-implant Clinical Handbook
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The Orthodontic Mini-implant Clinical Handbook

Richard Cousley

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eBook - ePub

The Orthodontic Mini-implant Clinical Handbook

Richard Cousley

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About This Book

Offers the very latest on the theory and practice of integrating mini-implant techniques into clinical practice

This all-new second edition of The Orthodontic Mini-implant Clinical Handbook provides a thoroughly revised and expanded update to the theoretical and practical aspects of using mini-implants in orthodontic practice. Taking a practical step-by-step approach with hundreds of clinical images, it presents updated clinical techniques and new clinical cases, covering all topics of importance for utilising mini-implants. It also includes a new chapter on mini-implant anchored maxillary expansion appliances.

It begins with a chapter that looks at mini-implant principles and potential complications, before moving onto clinical and design factors for maximising mini-implant success. Other chapters cover incisor retraction; molar distalisation and protraction; intrusion and anterior openbite treatments; bone anchored rapid maxillary expansion; orthognathic surgical uses; and ectopic teeth.

  • Provides a comprehensive guide to both theoretical and practical advice for the use of mini-implants in orthodontic practice
  • Covers updated clinical techniques and new clinical cases
  • Presents a new chapter on mini-implant anchored maxillary expansion appliances
  • Takes a highly illustrated step-by-step approach ideal for clinical practice

The Orthodontic Mini-Implant Clinical Handbook is an essential resource to orthodontists, maxillofacial surgeons, practicing dentists, and anyone with an interest in mini-implant skeletal anchorage.

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Orthodontic Miniā€implant Principles and Potential Complications

This chapter could alternatively have been titled ā€˜the advantages and disadvantagesā€™ or, more trendily, ā€˜the pros and consā€™ of miniā€implants, since it describes what we have to gain and possibly lose from their use. However, before we embark on these details, it's important to summarise what is meant by orthodontic miniā€implants and how weā€™ve arrived at current clinical applications.

1.1 The Origins of Orthodontic Bone Anchorage

Orthodonticā€specific skeletal fixtures were developed from two distinct sources:
  • restorative implants
  • maxillofacial surgical plating kits [1].
Orthodontic implants were first produced in the 1990s by modification of dental implant designs, making them shorter (e.g. 4ā€“6 mm length) and wider (e.g. 3 mm diameter). However, they retained the crucial requirement for osseointegration, which is a direct structural and functional union of bone with the implant surface causing clinical ankylosis of the fixture. In contrast, orthodontic miniplates and miniā€implants (miniscrews) are derived from bone fixation technology, and primarily rely on mechanical retention rather than osseointegration. In effect, modification of the maxillofacial bone plate design, adding a transmucosal neck and intraoral head, resulted in the miniplate, whilst adaption of the fixation screw design produced the miniā€implant. Since the start of this millennium, a wide variety of customised orthodontic miniā€implants have been produced and these are now used in the vast majority of orthodontic bone anchorage applications. Orthodontic implants are no longer in standard use and the invasive nature of miniplates tends to limit their use to orthopaedic traction (e.g. Class III) cases or occasionally where the alveolar and palatal sites are too limited for miniā€implant usage (as exemplified in Chapter 8).

1.2 The Evolution of Miniā€implant Biomechanics

Hindsight is a wonderful tool, especially with new treatment modalities such as orthodontic miniā€implants. Much has changed in my clinical practice since I first used miniā€implants, back in 2003. And when one looks at the early texts on miniā€implants (including the first edition of this textbook), the evolution of techniques is also very apparent. The miniā€implant evolution in the 10 years from circa 2005 to 2015 may be best summarised as shown in Table 1.1.

1.3 3D Anchorage Indications

This gradual refinement of miniā€implant techniques has been accompanied by a substantial increase in the range of clinical applications for miniā€implants. The proportion of these uses will vary between orthodontists, depending on their individual caseloads, and even on financial and cultural influences. Overall, it's best to subdivide modern anchorage control according to each of the three dimensions and ā€˜otherā€™ applications, with common examples for each category listed below.
Anchorage dimension
  • Incisor retraction and torque
  • Molar distalisation
  • Molar advancement
  • Single/multiple teeth intrusion
  • Tooth extrusion
  • Centreline corrections
  • Altering occlusal plane
  • Rapid maxillary expansion (RME)
  • Intermaxillary fixation (IMF) and traction
  • Temporary dental restorative abutment
Table 1.1 The clinical evolution of orthodontic miniā€implant anchorage is subdivided into three chronological stages, with a description of the main focus at each stage along with representative clinical examples and associated sideā€effects
Stage of evolution Clinical focus Technique examples Sideā€effects
1 Reliable anchorage Direct anchorage, from alveolar sites
Indirect anchorage, especially palatal sites
Vertical effects of oblique traction, e.g. lateral openbites and uncontrolled incisor movements
Hidden anchorage loss due to failings of connecting anchorage components
2 Minimised sideā€effects Traction powerarms
Rigid transpalatal auxiliaries
Prevention of incisor extrusion/retroclination
Prevention of molar buccal/palatal tipping movements during intrusion
3 Optimised target tooth movements (in addition to anchorage control) Controlled 3D tooth movements during:
  • incisor retraction
  • molar distalisation
  • molar intrusion
Bodily movement of target teeth, e.g.
  • torque control during incisor retraction, bodily distalisation of molars, vertical molar intrusion movements

1.4 Using the Right Terminology

Unfortunately, a misleading array of terms has been used for bone anchorage devices (BADs) and their applications in both journals and the commercial literature. Essentially, it is best to encompass all types of fixtures which provide skeletal anchorage under the umbrella terms BADs or temporary anchorage devices (TADs), although the latter term does not indicate the essential role of bone in this anchorage. This book covers only one of the three types of BADs: miniā€implants. Whilst the terms miniā€implant and miniscrew are used interchangeably in the literature, it is erroneous to use the terms microscrews or microimplants since these fixtures are small (mini) and not microscopic. I prefer the term miniā€implant since it conveys the small size and implantable nature of these temporary fixtures.

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