Reliability Centered Maintenance – Reengineered
eBook - ePub

Reliability Centered Maintenance – Reengineered

Practical Optimization of the RCM Process with RCM-R®

Jesus R. Sifonte, James V. Reyes-Picknell

  1. 349 pages
  2. English
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eBook - ePub

Reliability Centered Maintenance – Reengineered

Practical Optimization of the RCM Process with RCM-R®

Jesus R. Sifonte, James V. Reyes-Picknell

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About This Book

Reliability Centered Maintenance – Reengineered: Practical Optimization of the RCM Process with RCM-R® provides an optimized approach to a well-established and highly successful method used for determining failure management policies for physical assets. It makes the original method that was developed to enhance flight safety far more useful in a broad range of industries where asset criticality ranges from high to low. RCM-R® is focused on the science of failures and what must be done to enable long-term sustainably reliable operations. If used correctly, RCM-R® is the first step in delivering fewer breakdowns, more productive capacity, lower costs, safer operations and improved environmental performance. Maintenance has a huge impact on most businesses whether its presence is felt or not. RCM-R® ensures that the right work is done to guarantee there are as few nasty surprises as possible that can harm the business in any way.

RCM-R® was developed to leverage on RCM's original success at delivering that effectiveness while addressing the concerns of the industrial market. RCM-R® addresses the RCM method and shortfalls in its application -- It modifies the method to consider asset and even failure mode criticality so that rigor is applied only where it is truly needed. It removes (within reason) the sources of concern about RCM being overly rigorous and too labor intensive without compromising on its ability to deliver a tailored failure management program for physical assets sensitive to their operational context and application. RCM-R® also provides its practitioners with standard based guidance for determining meaningful failure modes and causes facilitating their analysis for optimum outcome.

  • Includes extensive review of the well proven RCM method and what is needed to make it successful in the industrial environment

  • Links important elements of the RCM method with relevant International Standards for risk management and failure management

  • Enhances RCM with increased emphasis on statistical analysis, bringing it squarely into the realm of Evidence Based Asset Management

  • Includes extensive, experience based advice on implementing and sustaining RCM based failure management programs

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Chapter 1 Asset Management
Chapter 2 The History of RCM and Its Relevance in Today’s Industry
RCM Development
Chapter 3 The RCM-R® Process
The Sae JA1011 Rcm Standard
Operational Context and Functions
Functional Failures
Failure Modes
Failure Effects
Failure Consequences
Maintenance Strategies Selection
Reliability Centered Maintenance-Reengineered (RCM-R®)
RCM-R® Project
System Description
Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability (RAM) Analysis
Current Situation Explained
Failure Data Analysis at a Glance
Introduction to Weibull Distribution and Analysis
Optimum Replacement Time Analysis
Detailed Failure Data Analysis Using the Weibull Distribution
The RCM-R® Process Diagram
Chapter 4 RCM-R® Pre-work
Ensuring Asset Data Integrity
Rcm-R® Data
Asset Data Registers
Work Order Data
Asset Criticality Analysis
Chapter Summary
Chapter 5 Functions and Failures
The Operating Context
Performance Levels
Functional Analysis
Primary Functions
Secondary Functions
Efficiency and Economy
Control, Containment, and Comfort
Health and Safety
Environmental Integrity
Structural Integrity and Superfluous Functions
Hidden Functions
Functional Block Diagrams
Failure Types and Classes
Types of Failures: Functional and Potential Failures
Classification of Functional Failures
Chapter Summary
Chapter 6 Failure Symptoms and Causes
Failure modes
Failure mode types
Root causes of failure modes
How much detail?
Chapter summary
Chapter 7 Quantifying Failure Impacts
Guide Questions for Describing Failure Effects
How is The Failure Detected?
How is the Safety of the People around the Failed Asset Affected?
How are Environmental Goals Impacted?
How is Production or Operations Affected by the Failure?
What Kind of Physical Damage is Caused by the Failure? How Costly is the Failure in Terms of Maintenance and Repair?
Is There any Secondary Damage? What Must be Done to Restore Operations? How Long Would it Take?
Documenting Failure Effects Statements in the RCM-R® Worksheet
ISO Standard-Based Failure Effects Risk Analysis
RCM-R® Failure Effects Risk Assessment Matrix
Chapter Summary
Chapter 8 Overview of Maintenance Strategies
Overview of Strategies for Managing Failure Consequences
Technically Feasible and Worth Doing
Preventive Maintenance
Predictive Maintenance (PDM)
Detective Maintenance (Failure Finding) (DM)
Running To Failure (RTF)
Nonrecurring Actions (One-Time Changes)
Design Change Objectives
Describing One-Time Changes
Chapter Summary
Chapter 9 Condition-Based Maintenance Techniques
Vibration Analysis
Jesús R. Sifonte
Vibration Parameters and Units
Vibration Analyses
Machine Condition Diagnosis with Vibration Analyses
Vibration Analysis Diagnostic Example
Infrared Thermography
Wayne Ruddock
Introduction and History
Basic Infrared Theory
Applications of Infrared Thermography in Predictive Maintenance (PDM)
Electrical Inspections
Mechanical Inspections
Process Inspections
Facility Inspections
Precision Lubrication and Oil Analysis
Mark Barnes
Identifying Lubrication-Related Failure Modes
Lack of Lubrication
Too Much Lubricant (Overlubrication)
Wrong Lubricant Selected
Wrong Lubricant Added
Lubricant Contaminated with Moisture
Lubricant Contaminated with Particles
Lubricant Degraded
Lubricant Too Hot/Cold
Additives Depleted
Lubricant Contains Foam/Air Entrainment
Oil Analysis as a Predictive Tool of Other Problems
Sampling Frequency
Sampling Location
Oil Analysis Test Slate
Allan Rienstra
Sound Principles
The Basics
Frequency (F)
Period (T)
Measuring Sound
Velocity of Sound and Acoustic Impedance
Sound Propagation through Air
How Ultrasound Detectors Work
How Ultrasound Is Collected
Airborne Sensors
Contact Sensors
Why Ultrasound Is an Effective Technology
Compressed Air Leak Management
Condition Monitoring
Slow-Speed Bearings
Acoustic Condition-Based Lubrication
Electrical Applications
Steam System Inspections
Pump Cavitation
Reciprocating Compressors and Valves
Heat Exchanger and Condenser Leaks
Ultrasound for Reliability
Nondestructive Testing
Jeff Smith
Conventional NDT Methods
Advanced NDT Methods
Chapter 10 Selecting Strategies for Managing Failure Consequences
Categories of Failure Consequences
Failure Consequence Management Policies’ Nomenclature and Typical Decision Diagrams
Hidden Failures Consequence Management Tasks
Safety and/or Environmental Consequence Management Tasks
Production Consequence Management Tasks
Maintenance Consequence Management Tasks
RCM-R® Failure Consequence Management Decision Diagram
Developing Meaningful Maintenance Tasks
Chapter Summary
Chapter 11 Fine-Tuning RCM Analysis
The Need for Better Data
Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability (RAM) Analysis
Failure Data Analysis
Weibull Analysis
Creating and Interpreting Weibull Data Plots
Periodic Tasks Frequency
Chapter Summary
Chapter 12 Implementing RCM-R
The Analysis Team
The Facilitator
Training and Competency
Estimating the Effort
Conducting the Analysis
Implementing the Outcomes
Implementing C and T Tasks
Implementing D Tasks
F Outcomes
R Decisions
Monitoring and Continuous Improvement
Monitoring and Improvement Tools
Governance for Sustainability
Chapter 13 Leveraging RCM-R®
Integrated and Iterative?
Why Bother?
Industrial Life Cycle Support
Condition Monitoring Support
Time-Based Task Support
Detective Maintenance Support
Run to Failure (F Tasks)
Providing Support
Documentation and Records
Skills and Capabilities
Neil Montgomery
Chapter Summary
Appendix A
Appendix B


This book by James Reyes-Picknell and Jesús R. Sifonte is a welcome addition to the literature on reliability centered maintenance (RCM). Over the last decade, the workplace has changed, and RCM has evolved to meet the needs of today’s companies. Although papers have appeared charting this evolution, the book represents an opportunity to reflect on and consolidate the findings. This is not a backward-looking volume, however. Far from it. Rather, its cutting-edge analysis points to the continued relevance of RCM well into the future.
Reyes-Picknell and Sifonte are extremely well positioned to tackle the project—with strong backgrounds in both theory and practice. They begin the book with an explanation of the value of RCM in the current context. Then, in Chapter 3, they hint at the future with an introduction of the changes involved in their formulation of RCM-R® (reliability centered maintenance-reengineered). Of course, RCM-R® is not simply a theory, and the following chapters go on to explain its practical application—supplemented by numerous very helpful examples, along with figures highlighting the main points.
To put it simply, RCM-R® takes RCM a step further by making it more evidence based where data are available. In general, RCM-R® requires operational, technical, reliability, maintenance-related, failure, material, financial, safety, and environmental data to be analyzed for decision-making purposes. The effort to take RCM a step further is, in fact, an overriding theme of the book. A particularly valuable example is Chapter 9 on condition-based maintenance techniques, where the authors, along with several colleagues, contribute detailed insights into the condition monitoring technologies of vibration analysis (Jesús Sifonte), infrared thermography (Wayne Ruddock), lubrication and oil analysis (Mark Barnes), ultrasound (Allan Rienstra), and nondestructive testing (Jeff Smith). In Chapter 12, they extend RCM into the provisioning of spare parts, including a section on slow-moving capital spares written by Neil Montgomery.
Andrew K. S. Jardine
University of Toronto



RCM was successfully developed during the 1970s while the aviation industry was facing important challenges. High maintenance costs, frequent undesirable component failures, and the safe increase in passenger capacity of aircraft designed to meet Federal Aviation Agency requirements were some of the struggles the aviation industry overcame with the development of its novel process to determine failure consequence management policies for aircraft nonstructural components. Later on, the so-called reliability centered maintenance process was introduced with success in the mining and nuclear industries. The development of an international asset management standard (ISO 55000) in 2014 ...

Table of contents

  1. Cover
  2. Halftitle
  3. Title
  4. Copyright
  5. Table of Contents
Citation styles for Reliability Centered Maintenance – Reengineered

APA 6 Citation

Sifonte, J., & Reyes-Picknell, J. (2017). Reliability Centered Maintenance – Reengineered (1st ed.). Taylor and Francis. Retrieved from (Original work published 2017)

Chicago Citation

Sifonte, Jesus, and James Reyes-Picknell. (2017) 2017. Reliability Centered Maintenance – Reengineered. 1st ed. Taylor and Francis.

Harvard Citation

Sifonte, J. and Reyes-Picknell, J. (2017) Reliability Centered Maintenance – Reengineered. 1st edn. Taylor and Francis. Available at: (Accessed: 14 October 2022).

MLA 7 Citation

Sifonte, Jesus, and James Reyes-Picknell. Reliability Centered Maintenance – Reengineered. 1st ed. Taylor and Francis, 2017. Web. 14 Oct. 2022.