The Facility Manager's Guide to Safety and Security
eBook - ePub

The Facility Manager's Guide to Safety and Security

John W. Henderson

  1. 270 pages
  2. English
  3. ePUB (mobile friendly)
  4. Available on iOS & Android
eBook - ePub

The Facility Manager's Guide to Safety and Security

John W. Henderson

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About This Book

A guide for facility managers of varying types of facilities including, apartment buildings/complexes, office buildings, retail stores, educational facilities (schools), restaurants, and countless others. It will look specifically at the physical similarities inherent in all buildings/facilities and delve into the operational/maintenance needs, access control, audit proceedures and emergency procedure requirements. It provides procedures and policy direction in facilities that are lacking such formalized doctrine and gives a starting point to run their facilities in a consistent manner with a focus on safety and security, as well as keeping control of liability risk.

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Facilities around the world are found in a variety of types, shapes, and sizes and are built for differing purposes as human need arises. The main reason for building a facility is to provide a safe, contained location for people, assets, information storage and processing, manufacturing, or a combination of all of those. As such, there are basic similarities throughout all facilities that allow facility managers to operate with similar skill sets.
To be more specific, there are facilities and buildings all over the world that serve as single residences, multiunit residential buildings, retail stores and shopping malls, offices, warehouses, factories, sports stadiums, museums, and public service facilities such as hospitals and government services entities. Each type of facility always has one person in charge of operations and safety/security; although that person may not carry such a title as a full-time endeavor, the function remains the same. In the case of a large factory or other large complex, there may be an identified security and/or facility manager, while in a small residential building, the manager may simply be an occupant that looks after any problems and is usually known as the building superintendent.
What I have found in my many years of public service, but more specifically in my years as a security manager and facility threat and risk assessor, is that most buildings have many commonalities despite their different shapes, sizes, and functions. These commonalities derive from the basic requirements of any facility and the nature of the construction and occupants, as well as the intended use of the facility. In other words, a basic building is designed to hold occupants, furniture, items of value, or, in the case of a factory, machinery and workers, for example. The main objective of any building is not only to keep people, assets, and information secure but also to keep the weather and natural elements out, forming a basic part of the need for humans to remain safe and secure, consistent with Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs.
The commonalities are basic in nature and indicate a common set of regular human functions in each facility, regardless of the size and nature of the facility, that lend to a common set of methods to run and maintain each facility. Although the complexity of managing and maintaining different facilities will vary widely with purpose and function, buildings still have common human functions and resulting issues that should be managed in a consistent manner to ensure the success of the facility, as well as the success of the activity within the facility, by addressing safety and security.
Simply explained through example, a family home is intended to shelter a family from the elements and keep them and their possessions secured against the outside world. Inside the average home, we find access and egress points; access controls; a small furnace or heating plant, and perhaps air conditioning; an electrical power panel; water sources and drains; a hot-water tank; common areas; a kitchen that is full of electrical and perhaps even gas appliances; bathrooms with a sink, bathtub/shower, and toilets; and private areas such as the bedrooms and perhaps an office. Compare this to an apartment building that has numerous self-contained units containing all of the aforementioned aspects, but also a general facility-level heating plant, water source, drainage system, electrical power facility, and access/egress to the entire building, as well as to each individual unit. There may also be an elevator system in addition to the stairs and a multispace parking garage as opposed to the household one- or two-car garage. Although on a much greater scale, the apartment building still has the same kind of basic services and hardware as the single family home.
Securing and managing both these types of facilities and others requires a person or team of people with identified responsibilities toward managing and maintaining the facility to support the intended function. In the case of the family home, the homeowner and/or spouse (if there is one) usually handles all of the responsibilities, or he or she will hire persons to perform maintenance and cleaning functions. In an apartment building, most often there is a hired building superintendent, while a large factory might have a security and/or facility manager and a facilities team to handle security, cleaning, and maintenance. However, the most basic human functions remain the same as those in the family home.
The range of facilities in the world is huge, but most have basic functions common to the comfort and physical needs of people. As described, the most basic of facilities is the family home that supports the life of a family. It is this comfort and physical security that create commonality in most buildings, but the following are descriptions of different types of facilities, all of which require human comforts, security, and management by a designated person or team of individuals whose sole purpose is to keep the facility running in its intended manner.
The following are descriptions of typical facilities in cities and towns across the world including their uses, functions, and management requirements. The commonalities in each facility type will stand out. The list does not account for combination facilities where more than one type of facility has been built with the purpose of effective planning and convenience. The list is not exhaustive and is not intended to reflect facilities in totality. It is general in nature and intended to illustrate the commonalities in facilities for the purposes of this book.
Residential Facilities
Family home: This is a private dwelling.
Use: It provides a safe and secure base for a family.
Functions: It contains sleeping quarters; a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system; power and fuel supply; water and drainage; a kitchen with cooking and food-storage appliances; personal assets; furniture; tools and vehicles.
Management: Management is handled by the homeowner and perhaps contractors for upkeep.
Apartment building: This is a common building containing multiple dwelling units.
Use: It contains multiunit dwellings for individuals and families and a garage and/or parking facilities.
Building level: HVAC, including chillers, boilers, furnaces, power supply and uninterruptible power supply (UPS); fire annunciation panel and subpanels; maintenance equipment and storage.
Individual dwelling: HVAC; power and fuel supply; water and drainage; kitchen with electric appliances and cooking facilities; personal assets; tools; furniture.
Management: Management is handled by the owner; a building superintendent/manager and contractors take care of maintenance.
Commercial Facilities
Office building: This is a common building containing multiple units for business purposes.
Use: It contains multiunit offices and common areas, boardrooms, reception stations, kitchenettes, lunchrooms, and media rooms/auditoriums.
Functions: It contains HVAC, including chillers, boilers, furnaces, power supply and UPS; fire annunciation panel and subpanels; maintenance equipment and storage; water and fuel supply; drainage; and designated parking in a lot or garage.
Management: Management includes a facilities manager and/or security, a maintenance contractor, and subcontractors.
Commercial retail store: This is a storefront business operation for retail sales and trade.
Use: It is used for retail sales of goods and services to the public, storage of assets, shipping and receiving, and office space.
Functions: In a stand-alone building these include HVAC, including chillers, boilers, furnaces, power supply and UPS; fire annunciation panel and subpanels; maintenance equipment and storage; water and fuel supply; and drainage.
Part of a mall system: All the aforementioned functions are supplied to the tenant business by the mall building operation, but the store may still have washroom facilities and change rooms, a kitchenette, cooking appliances, cash registers, and a stand-alone alarm system.
Management: Store managers usually handle everything and work through mall management/maintenance and security for particular issues.
Restaurant: This is a professional kitchen for the preparation and sale of meals and alcohol.
Use: Restaurants provide a service and an experience to customers who order food and drink, wait for the preparation, and then consume the meal. The in-house experience often lasts one to two hours.
Function: Industrial kitchen setup is led by a professional chef; it contains multiple cooking appliances using electricity and fuel and multiple cold storage units, as well as restroom facilities, power and water supplies, drainage, cash registers, and ATM machines. Sometimes recreational facilities are present.
Management: Management consists of a restaurant manager, head chef, owner/operator, and contractors.
Research facilities: Research facilities are proprietary and information driven and can be for cognitive research or for researching technology, medicine, goods, or food.
Use: These facilities will be tailored to the type of research being performed but all will be high-security entities.
Function: Research facilities will contain all typical functions of large facilities such as office space, HVAC, UPS, hydropower (hydro), fuel supplies, water and drainage, and human comforts such as kitchenettes and restrooms; they will also contain specialized testing equipment, laboratories and facilities, either indoor or outdoor as the functions require. Laboratories contain special environmental equipment, specialized alarms, and chemical fire suppression; special exhaust facilities and incineration may be present as well for disposal of toxic and biological waste.
Management: Some research entities are private consortiums, while others are public and funded/managed by government agencies. Regardless, management is tight on research facilities as the accountabilities are usually quite high. Most staff and management are in house; contractors must undergo rigorous clearance processes.
Manufacturing facilities/factories
Use: Factories are generally designed as large boxes of aluminum containing the equipment needed for manufacturing a wide range of goods. Older factories are often standard bricked buildings with timber or metal shells, constructed with rooftop ventilation, but this style is falling out of use as time progresses.
Function: Factories house the machinery and equipment, often in mass-production lines requiring a large supply of hydro and gas/oil/diesel, as well as water and drainage, and wasteholding and disposal facilities. They will still have offices and boardrooms, and restrooms, change rooms, kitchens, and common rooms for workers, as well as boilers, chillers, and HVAC, including special HVAC for the manufacturing line to vent dangerous fumes from manufacturing processes.
Management: Most often factories are privately owned, reporting to boards of directors or to an owner. They have professionals managing day-to-day operations through which the buildings are run by in-house facilities management and security and/or contracted management, security, and maintenance.
Storage facilities: Storage facilities exist for the storage and movement of manufactured goods and food supplies or for long-term storage of information.
Use: There are active supply chains of storage facilities in all countries where goods are stored prior to moving to retail locations and cold storage of food items to prevent spoilage during transit and delivery to grocery stores. Information storage exists mostly for government, where massive warehouses may contain decades’ worth of files and information for the population.
Function: Storage facilities have offices and boardrooms; restrooms and change rooms; hydro, gas supply, water supply and drainage; and kitchens and common rooms for workers, as well as boilers, chillers, HVAC, including special HVAC and chilling/heating equipment for the cold and warm storage facilities. Security systems and transportation are important for storage and supply systems.
Management: Government information storage will be run by government managers reporting to a chain of command with in-house facilities management/maintenance/security or contracted services. Commercial storage will be privately owned or reporting to a corporation and/or board of directors. There can be in-house facilities and maintenance management and employees or contracted services.
Gas stations/garages: These are most often private, for-profit corporations delivering gasoline, diesel, and mechanical services to consumers at small vending stations across each community.
Use: Gas stations most often have a small storefront building where transactions are made for the vended gasoline and some minor vending of goods with available public restrooms and, sometimes, also small restaurants. Outside are separately located gas pumps where the fuel is delivered. Some gas stations have car wash facilities while mechanic shops have several bay garages within which to safely do mechanical work with their specialized tools.
Function: Gas stations require the same HVAC, hydro, fuel supplies for heating, water and drainage, and maintenance as other facilities but they also have special fuel storage requirements for the fuels being sold, which are located in underground tanks on the property. Car wash facilities will have more complicated plumbing, water supply, and extra drainage requirements, subject to environmental regulations.
Management: There is a gas station manager who could also be the owner of the independent business, which is also a franchise of a larger corporate structure that supplies the fuel from storage and refining plants. The corporation dictates the price and the owner/operator is contracted to take a small percentage of the income from the gasoline sales.
Critical Infrastructure Facilities
Banks: Banks are financial institutions within the community.
Use: They serve as financial centers for the local community where savings and valued assets are kept as well as offer an array of financial services for the community.
Function: A bank contains customer service stations, secured bank vaults, office space, restrooms, kitchenettes, hydro with UPS, water and drainage systems, and automatic cash machines.
Management: Management comprises a bank manager as a franchisee and contracted maintenance and security.
Airport: An air transportation hub for people and commerce/goods, this is a facility of critical importance with unique security requirements.
Use: Persons/goods are transported by air to multiple destinations; aircraft are stored and air traffic control is present.
Function: This includes aircraft takeoff and landing; aircraft maintenance and storage; aircraft loading and un...

Table of contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright Page
  5. Table of Contents
  6. Preface
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. Author
  9. 1 Introduction
  10. 2 Safety and Security: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and How It Applies to Your Facility
  11. 3 What Is Really Going On in the Building?
  12. 4 Access Control
  13. 5 Performing Safety and Security Audits
  14. 6 Fire Safety in Facilities
  15. 7 Incident Response
  16. 8 Contracting/Subcontracting Work and Services
  17. 9 Inclusiveness and Accessibility
  18. 10 Reviews and Proposals
  19. 11 Maintenance
  20. 12 The “Gap”
  21. 13 Parking Issues
  22. 14 Facility Wellness
  23. 15 Employee Management
  24. 16 Policies and Procedures
  25. 17 Occupational Health and Safety
  26. 18 Business Continuity Planning
  27. 19 Concluding Topics
  28. Index