Automotive Power Systems
eBook - ePub

Automotive Power Systems

Dorin O. Neacșu

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  2. English
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eBook - ePub

Automotive Power Systems

Dorin O. Neacșu

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About This Book

Vehicles are intrinsically linked to our lives. This book covers all technical details of the vehicle electrification process, with focus on power electronics. The main challenge in vehicle electrification consists of replacing the engine-based mechanical, pneumatic, or hydraulic ancillary energy sources with electrical energy processed through an electromagnetic device. The book illustrates this evolutionary process with numerous series-production examples for either of body or chassis systems, from old milestones to futuristic luxury vehicles.

Electrification of ancillaries and electric propulsion eventually meet into an all-electric vehicle and both processes rely heavily on power electronics. Power electronics deals with electronic processing of electrical energy. This makes it a support technology for the automotive industry. All the automotive visions for the next decade (2020-2030) are built on top of power electronics and the automotive power electronics industry is expected at 15% compound annual growth rate, the highest among all automotive technologies. Hence, automotive power electronics industry is very appealing for recent and future graduates.

The book structure follows the architecture of the electrical power system for a conventional engine-based vehicle, with a last chapter dedicated to an introduction onto electric propulsion. The first part of the book describes automotive technologies for generation and distribution of electrical power, as well as its usage within body systems, chassis systems, or lighting. The second part explores deeper into the specifics of each component of the vehicle electric power system.

Since cars have been on the streets for over 100 years, each chapter starts with a list of historical achievements. Recognizing the engineering effort span over more than a century ennobles the R&D efforts of the new millennium. Focus on history of electricity in vehicle applications is another attractive treat of the book.

The book fills a gap between books targeting practical education and works sharing advanced academic vision, offering students and academics a quick tour of the basic tools and long-standing infrastructure, and offering practicing engineers an introduction on newly introduced power electronics-based technologies. It is therefore recommended as a must-have book for students and early graduates in automotive power electronics activities.

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CRC Press

1 Architecture of an Automotive Power System

Historical Milestones (Electricity in Cars)

  • 1769: Military tractor invented by Joseph Cugnot based on a steam engine with a parallel development of electric and engine propulsion
  • 1830s: First electric cars—R. Anderson (Scotland); Stratingh & Becker (Holland)
  • 1842: Davenport (US) uses the first non-rechargeable electric cells
  • 1859: Lead-acid batteries invented by Gaston Plante
  • 1899–1902: Highest point in electric cars—followed by decreased interest
  • 1912: C. Kettering (GM) invented the electric starter—no need for hand crank
  • 191x: Other use of electricity in engine cars: ignition and lighting
  • 1912: An electric roadster sold for $1,750, while a gasoline car sold for $650.
  • 1920s: Use of the battery charger
  • 1950s: Change from 6 V to 12 V system in cars. Note that larger trucks, land-based military vehicles, or pleasure boating use 24 V.
  • 1980s–2000s: Development of comfort systems requiring more electrical power.
  • Today, most vehicles have an installed power around 10 kW (without propulsion).

1.1 Architecture of the Automotive Power System

The most-used architecture for the electrical distribution system is shown in Figure 1.1. The main source of electrical power is the alternator, which is an electrical generator actuated by the engine and able to produce voltage for the dc distribution bus. A battery is also connected to the same bus. Its main function occurs during the startup of the engine, when a large current is required to crank the engine with a starter. Therefore, the battery just feeds additional power into the system, and the alternator is seen as the main source of electrical energy.
FIGURE 1.1 Typical architecture of an automotive electrical distribution system.
Numerous small motors, solenoids, and actuators are connected to the electrical distribution bus. Their count is increasing year after year, with the adoption of more comfort, convenience, and safety systems. Based on their function, these electrical loads are grouped into body systems, chassis systems, powertrain systems, and other miscellaneous safety and convenience systems.
Electrical power produced by the alternator is not the only source of energy within a car. It is worthwhile to note that conventional cars use mechanical and hydraulic systems to transfer power and displacement to different components. Examples for the usage of these alternative sources of energy are presented throughout the book.
A modern c...

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