Comparative Kinesiology of the Human Body
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Comparative Kinesiology of the Human Body

Normal and Pathological Conditions

Salih Angin, Ibrahim Simsek, Salih Angin, Ibrahim Simsek

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eBook - ePub

Comparative Kinesiology of the Human Body

Normal and Pathological Conditions

Salih Angin, Ibrahim Simsek, Salih Angin, Ibrahim Simsek

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About This Book

Comparative Kinesiology of the Human Body: Normal and Pathological Conditions covers changes in musculoskeletal, neurological and cardiopulmonary systems that, when combined, are the three pillars of human movement. It examines the causes, processes, consequences and contexts of physical activity from different perspectives and life stages, from early childhood to the elderly. The book explains how purposeful movement of the human body is affected by pathological conditions related to any of these major systems. Coverage also includes external and internal factors that affect human growth patterns and development throughout the lifespan (embryo, child, adult and geriatrics).

This book is the perfect reference for researchers in kinesiology, but it is also ideal for clinicians and students involved in rehabilitation practice.

  • Includes in-depth coverage of the mechanical behavior of the embryo as one of the major determinants of human movement throughout the lifecycle
  • Provides a comparison of human movement between normal and pathological conditions
  • Addresses each body region in functional and dysfunctional kinesiological terms

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Part 1
History and basics of kinesiology
Chapter 1

Past, present and future of kinesiology

Fatma Uygur, Faculty of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey


The term kinesiology originates from the Greek words kinesis, to move and logy, to study. Ever since Aristotle, the manner in which humans walk and move have been studied by various scientists. Borelli, the Weber brothers, Marey, Muybridge, Braune, Fisher, Amar, Elftman and Winter have all contributed to the understanding of kinematics and kinetics of gait. Following the Second World War the Berkeley group; led by Inman and Eberhardt and further developed by Perry and Sutherland have moved the science of gait analysis dramatically forward by adding kinesiological electromygraphy, 3D force and energy measurements. This interpretation of movement led to the clinical application of gait analysis; to assist in the precise diagnosis and effective treatment of patients with locomotor disorders. Through movement science we came to understand the importance of core stabilization, motor learning, feed forward and feedback control, feed forward insufficiencies, anticipitory planning deficits and the means of optimizing these effects on skill acquisition. Human motion analysis has enabled us to design and produce endoprosthesis, limb prostheses, orthoses, various rehabilitation devices and humanoid robots. As the science of motion advances, new and more powerfull observation and modeling techniques and stimulation studies will develop enabling us to interpretate movement patterns for smart survelliance in security sensitive areas and to study human biomechanical responses to partial gravity.


Kinesiology; History of kinesiology; Motion analysis

Historical perspective of the kinesiology studies

Human movement has undoubtedly been observed ever since the time of the first human being, however the earliest written comments regarding the manner in which humans walk can be attributed to Aristotle in the fourth century before Christ.
During the Renaissance, Leonardo da Vinci and Galileo Galilei concentrated on the rudiments of biomechanics and Galileo was the first person to marry deductive reasoning with experimental observation.
Rene Descartes first conceived of an orthogonal co-ordinate system for describing the position of objects in space. In an illustration within his book De Homine published in 1662 after his death, Rene Descartes demonstrated a closed loop motor control with the movement of the arm being controlled by muscular activity under the influence of nerves connected to the brain and with feedback provided by the eyes (Baker, 2007), (Fig. 1.1).

Figure 1.1 Somatosensorial and visual senses in controlling voluntary movement.
Giovanni Alfonso Borelli, a student of Galileo was among the first scientists to analyze motion and performed the first experiment in gait analysis, and through this experiment he deduced that there was a medio-lateral movement of the head during walking; also developed his theory of muscle action based on mechanical principles. He published “De Motu Animalum” in 1682 and used a scientific approach in his description of walking (Fig. 1.2). For more scientific progress the physical laws governing forces were to be formulated by Isaac Newton in “Mathematical Principles in Natural Philosophy” in 1688 (Whittle, 1996; Banta, 1999; Baker, 2007).

Figure 1.2 Illustration of walking, the first scientific approach to gait analysis based on mechanical principles.
In “Physiologie des Mouvements” published in 1867 Duchenne; the founder of electrophysiology; described the function of individual muscles of the human body. It is accepted to be the first scientific systematic evaluation of muscle function (Banta, 1999).

Development of kinesiology in modern age

During the early nineteenth century, the first formal biomechanical investigations were made by the Weber brothers in Germany (Whittle, 1996; Banta, 1999; Andriacchi and Alexander, 2000). In 1836 the Weber brothers, Edward and Wilhelm published their book “Mechanics of the Human Walking Apparatus” in which they gave the first clear description of the gait cycle. They conducted experiments utilizing a stop watch, measuring tape and a telescope and made accurate measurements of the timing of gait and of the pendulum-like swinging of the leg of a cadaver. They were the first to develop illustrations showing the attitude of the limb segments at different instances of the walking cycle (Baker, 2007), (Fig. 1.3).

Figure 1.3 First description of a gait cycle and instant position of limb segments in pendular motion.
The earliest kinematic studies on human walking were performed in the 1870s by Marey in France and Muybridge in the States. These early investigations were made using still cameras; Marey utilized chronophotograph whereby a single plate camera had the shutter opened and closed at fixed time intervals, thus recording on the plate successive positions of the human body during function; he made multiple photographic exposures, on a single plate, of a subject who dressed in black, except for brightly illuminated stripes on the limbs. He also investigated the path of the center of gravity of the body and the pressure beneath the foot (Fig. 1.4). Maybridge used a series of cameras to take multiple pictures in rapid succession of both animals and humans in movement (Whittle, 1996; Paul, 1998; Andriacchi and Alexander, 2000).

Figure 1.4 Investigating the path of center of the gravity and movement of the limb segments of a person with fixed illuminated stribe on on his limbs and head.
Also, during that time period Wilhelm Braune and Otto Fisher reported measurements of body segment movements to calculate joint forces and energy expenditures using Newtonian mechanics. They photographed the subject with four cameras. One camera was positioned in front of the subject, one behind and one on each side, making the measurements three dimensional. The process of collecting data alone required 8–10 hours per subject and months to calculate kinematic measurements (Paul, 1998; Banta, 1999; Andriacchi and Alexander, 2000; Sutherland, 2002; Baker, 2007). Wilhelm Braune and Otto Fisher published their work in 1895 “Der Gang des Menchen” which is considered to be the first 3-D gait analysis (Baker, 2007).
Marey’s students Carey, Ampar and Demeny searched for scientific methods of recording the magnitude of foot-heel contact. Demeny developed a pneumatic mechanism which measured the vertical component of the ground reaction (Sutherland, 2005; Baker, 2007).
Jules Amar was the first to develop a three-component pneumatic force plate. Amar was a rehabilitation doctor working with amputees after the First World War (Fig. 1.5). Elftman later developed a full-three component mechanical force plate in 1938 and commercial strain gauge platforms became available in the 1970s (Sutherland, 2005; Baker, 2007).

Figure 1.5 Amar's pneumatic force plate.
A full understanding of normal gait requires the knowledge of which muscles are active during different parts of the gait cycle. The Berkeley Group headed by Inman and Eberhart at the University of California was assembled as a result of the causalities of the Second World War to advance prosthetic devices for war veterans. This group made the biggest advances in gait analyses. Vern Inman and colleagues moved the science of gait analysis dramatically forward by adding kinesiological electromyography, 3-D force and energy measurements in the study of walking in normal subjects and amputees (Sutherland, 2001).
In his landmark ar...

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