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Theory, Applications, and Numerics

Martin H. Sadd

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eBook - ePub


Theory, Applications, and Numerics

Martin H. Sadd

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About This Book

Although there are several books in print dealing with elasticity, many focus on specialized topics such as mathematical foundations, anisotropic materials, two-dimensional problems, thermoelasticity, non-linear theory, etc. As such they are not appropriate candidates for a general textbook. This book provides a concise and organized presentation and development of general theory of elasticity. This text is an excellent book teaching guide.

  • Contains exercises for student engagement as well as the integration and use of MATLAB Software
  • Provides development of common solution methodologies and a systematic review of analytical solutions useful in applications of
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Mathematical Preliminaries

Similar to other field theories such as fluid mechanics, heat conduction, and electromagnetics, the study and application of elasticity theory requires knowledge of several areas of applied mathematics. The theory is formulated in terms of a variety of variables including scalar, vector, and tensor fields, and this calls for the use of tensor notation along with tensor algebra and calculus. Through the use of particular principles from continuum mechanics, the theory is developed as a system of partial differential field equations that are to be solved in a region of space coinciding with the body under study. Solution techniques used on these field equations commonly employ Fourier methods, variational techniques, integral transforms, complex variables, potential theory, finite differences, and finite and boundary elements. Therefore, to develop proper formulation methods and solution techniques for elasticity problems, it is necessary to have an appropriate mathematical background. The purpose of this initial chapter is to provide a background primarily for the formulation part of our study. Additional review of other mathematical topics related to problem solution technique is provided in later chapters where they are to be applied.

1.1 Scalar, Vector, Matrix, and Tensor Definitions

Elasticity theory is formulated in terms of many different types of variables that are either specified or sought at spatial points in the body under study. Some of these variables are scalar quantities, representing a single magnitude at each point in space. Common examples include the material density ρ and material moduli such as Young’s modulus E, Poisson’s ratio v, or the shear modulus μ. Other variables of interest are vector quantities that are expressible in terms of components in a two- or three-dimensional coordinate system. Examples of vector variables are the displacement and rotation of material points in the elastic continuum. Formulations within the theory also require the need for matrix variables, which commonly require more than three components to quantify. Examples of such variables include stress and strain. As shown in subsequent chapters, a three-dimensional formulation requires nine components (only six are independent) to quantify the stress or strain at a point. For this case, the variable is normally expressed in a matrix format with three rows and three columns. To summarize this discussion, in a three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system, scalar, vector, and matrix variables can thus be written as follows:
where e1, e2, e3 are the usual unit basis vectors in the coordinate directions. Thus, scalars, vectors, and matrices are specified by one, three, and nine components, respectively.
The formulation of elasticity problems not only involves these types of variables, but also incorporates additional quantities that require even more components to characterize. Because of this, most field theories such as elasticity make use of a tensor formalism using index notation. This enables efficient representation of all variables and governing equations using a single standardized scheme. The tensor concept is defined more precisely in a late...

Table of contents

Citation styles for Elasticity
APA 6 Citation
Sadd, M. (2010). Elasticity ([edition unavailable]). Elsevier Science. Retrieved from https://www.perlego.com/book/1836626/elasticity-theory-applications-and-numerics-pdf (Original work published 2010)
Chicago Citation
Sadd, Martin. (2010) 2010. Elasticity. [Edition unavailable]. Elsevier Science. https://www.perlego.com/book/1836626/elasticity-theory-applications-and-numerics-pdf.
Harvard Citation
Sadd, M. (2010) Elasticity. [edition unavailable]. Elsevier Science. Available at: https://www.perlego.com/book/1836626/elasticity-theory-applications-and-numerics-pdf (Accessed: 15 October 2022).
MLA 7 Citation
Sadd, Martin. Elasticity. [edition unavailable]. Elsevier Science, 2010. Web. 15 Oct. 2022.