# Mathematics for Biological Scientists

## Mike Aitken, Bill Broadhurst, Stephen Hladky

- 482 pages
- English
- ePUB (mobile friendly)
- Available on iOS & Android

# Mathematics for Biological Scientists

## Mike Aitken, Bill Broadhurst, Stephen Hladky

## About This Book

Mathematics for Biological Scientists is a new undergraduate textbook which covers the mathematics necessary for biology students to understand, interpret and discuss biological questions.The book's twelve chapters are organized into four themes. The first theme covers the basic concepts of mathematics in biology, discussing the mathematics used in biological quantities, processes and structures. The second theme, calculus, extends the language of mathematics to describe change. The third theme is probability and statistics, where the uncertainty and variation encountered in real biological data is described. The fourth theme is explored briefly in the final chapter of the book, which is to show how the 'tools' developed in the first few chapters are used within biology to develop models of biological processes. Mathematics for Biological Scientists fully integrates mathematics and biology with the use of colour illustrations and photographs to provide an engaging and informative approach to the subject of mathematics and statistics within biological science.

## Frequently asked questions

## Information

*symbols*. A symbol may stand for a physical quantity or a number; for an operation such as addition or multiplication; or for a relationship such as ‘is equal to’ or ‘is greater than’. Often we use letters such as

*x, t, m*, or

*A*to stand for physical quantities such as distance, time, mass, or area. Symbols can also be special characters such as + for addition, or a combination of letters such as ‘sin’ for the sine function introduced in Chapter 4.

*F*=

*ma*where

*F, m*, and

*a*stand for force, mass, and acceleration. There are various systems for choosing units and conventions for how physical quantities are to be described. In this book we use the

*Système Internationale*(SI) system of units, which has become standard for scientists and engineers throughout the world.

*x, t, m*, +, ×, ÷, =, >. Symbols can stand for numbers or for physical quantities; they can indicate operations or they can state relationships like ‘is equal to’ or ‘is greater than’. You first started using many of these symbols back in primary school where you learned what + and = mean. Even then you also used symbols to stand for unknown numbers in exercises like that shown in Figure 1.2.

*before*we know the actual values. Of course the relations between our symbols are going to be a bit more complicated – but the principle behind the use of algebra is still the same.

(EQ1.1) |

*m*and m are completely different. The italic type tells us that

*m*stands for a physical quantity, mass, which might be expressed in kilograms; the plain roman type for the m after the 9.8 tells us it stands for the unit, meter.

*E*can represent the total energy of a chunk of matter,

*m*its mass, and

*c*the speed of light. Combining these with the symbol for ‘is equal to’ and the notation for raising to a power Einstein wrote

(EQ1.2) |