Corrections in the Community
eBook - ePub

Corrections in the Community

Edward J. Latessa, Brian Lovins

  1. 404 pages
  2. English
  3. ePUB (mobile friendly)
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eBook - ePub

Corrections in the Community

Edward J. Latessa, Brian Lovins

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About This Book

Corrections in the Community, Seventh Edition, examines the current state of community corrections and proposes an evidence-based approach to making programs more effective. As the U.S. prison and jail systems continue to struggle, options like probation, parole, alternative sentencing, and both residential and non-residential programs in the community continue to grow in importance. This text provides a solid foundation and includes the most salient information available on the broad and dynamic subject of community corrections. Authors Latessa and Lovins organize and evaluate the latest data on the assessment of offender risk/need/responsivity and successful methods that continue to improve community supervision and its effects on different types of clients, from those with mental illness or substance abuse problems to juveniles.

This book provides students with a thorough understanding of the theoretical and practical aspects of community corrections and prepares them to evaluate and strengthen these crucial programs. This seventh edition includes new chapters on pretrial, and graduated responses as well as updated information on specialty drug and other problem-solving courts. Now found in every state, these specialty courts represent a way to deal with some of the most devastating problems that face our population, be it substance abuse or re-entry to the community from prison. Chapters contain key terms, boxed material, review questions, and recommended readings, and a glossary is provided to clarify important concepts. The instructor's guide is expanded, offering sample syllabi for semester, quarter, and online classes; student exercises; and research and information links. A test bank and lecture slides are also available at no cost.

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Information

Publisher
Routledge
Year
2019
ISBN
9780429753756
Edition
7

Chapter 1

THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM

Key Terms

community corrections
corrections
courts
criminal justice system
incarceration
incarceration rates
jail
law enforcement
parole
prison
probation
prosecution
It is hard to identify the benefits inmates gain from prison, but the harm done there is readily seen. If you want to increase the crime problem, incite men to greater evil, and intensify criminal inclinations and proclivities, then lock violators up in prison for long periods, reduce their outside contacts, stigmatize them and block their lawful employment when released, all the while setting them at tutelage under the direction of more skilled and predatory criminals. I know of no better way to gain your ends than these. —Harry E. Allen
Crime is everywhere, in all nations great and small. It can affect where we live, where we shop, where we send our children to school, how much we pay for automobile insurance and taxes, and how safe we feel when we are in our communities. In the United States, crime is a violation of criminal statutes passed by elected representatives. These statutes are enforced by a variety of social control agencies, including law enforcement, prosecution, court, and post-adjudication components (e.g., prisons, probation, and parole). These varied agencies and actions, along with their philosophical bases and objectives, are usually called the “criminal justice system.”
No one imposed this specific set of agencies on the nation. We invented them ourselves and, if there is something amiss with an agency or mission, it can be changed. One fact about the American criminal justice system is that it is rapidly evolving and changing as a result of the volume of crime, emerging national priorities, available funding, and changing political ideologies. Behaviors deemed particularly heinous in one epoch may become regulated, if not accepted, behavior in another. For example, the “Great Experiment” of prohibition attempted to protect our national character and youth, increase productivity, lessen collateral problems of idleness, and improve the moral fiber of those using alcohol. It was later abandoned as a national crusade; earlier twentieth-century law enforcement efforts instead lapsed into strategies to regulate alcohol as a controlled substance, concerned only in large part with keeping alcohol out of the hands of youthful consumers and collecting taxes. More recently, we have seen a number of states legalize marijuana, when not so long ago one could be imprisoned for its use.
One component of the criminal justice system is corrections, defined as “post-adjudication processing of convicted criminal offenders.” This definition, if it were ever adequate, probably best fits the correctional scene of the early twentieth century, when the major sentencing options available to sentencing courts were committing the offender to prison or granting probation. In fact, the study of post-adjudication processing of criminal law offenders was, until about 1969, commonly referred to as “penology.” As shown in subsequent chapters, postadjudication has become much more complex in the United States.
The field of corrections, like most of the justice system, has undergone rapid change in the past three decades. Programs have been developed to allow prosecutors to suspend prosecution of alleged criminals, provided they become and remain actively involved in seeking personal development and rehabilitation under a “deferred prosecution” program. Pretrial detention of accused law violators is now used less frequently due to the development of personal recognizance programs that have reduced the importance of bondsmen in the pretrial portion of the system. In addition, the tools of technology have grown greatly in the past three decades, expanding probation supervision into conventional probation, intensive supervised probation, house arrest (with or without electronic monitoring or global position system [GPS] tracking), community service, day-reporting centers, and restitution programs. There are even probation variations that combine serving a sentence in jail before probation begins, and several probation programs that require a period of imprisonment prior to return to the community under probation supervision. These latter programs, incidentally, are part of the “intermediate sanctions” that have emerged in the past 40 years: offender control programs that fall somewhere between probation and imprisonment. All of this and more will be discussed later in this book.
Booking into local jail. [Photo courtesy of Beth Saunders]
What has corrections become? How can we best define it at the pres...

Table of contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright Page
  5. Dedication
  6. Contents in Brief
  7. Contents in Detail
  8. About the Authors
  9. Preface
  10. Acknowledgments
  11. Chapter 1: The Criminal Justice System
  12. Chapter 2: Pretrial Bond, Bail, and Diversion
  13. Chapter 3: Sentencing and Community Corrections
  14. Chapter 4: Probation in America
  15. Chapter 5: Parole in America
  16. Chapter 6: Offender Assessment
  17. Chapter 7: Roles of Probation and Parole Officers
  18. Chapter 8: Supervision Strategies and Delivering Services to Offenders
  19. Chapter 9: Graduated Responses to Behavior
  20. Chapter 10: Community Residential Correctional Programs
  21. Chapter 11: Special Populations in Community Corrections
  22. Chapter 12: Women and Community Corrections
  23. Chapter 13: Problem-Solving Courts
  24. Chapter 14: Evaluating Community Corrections
  25. Chapter 15: The Future of Corrections in the Community
  26. Glossary/Index
Citation styles for Corrections in the Community

APA 6 Citation

Latessa, E., & Lovins, B. (2019). Corrections in the Community (7th ed.). Taylor and Francis. Retrieved from https://www.perlego.com/book/2193514/corrections-in-the-community-pdf (Original work published 2019)

Chicago Citation

Latessa, Edward, and Brian Lovins. (2019) 2019. Corrections in the Community. 7th ed. Taylor and Francis. https://www.perlego.com/book/2193514/corrections-in-the-community-pdf.

Harvard Citation

Latessa, E. and Lovins, B. (2019) Corrections in the Community. 7th edn. Taylor and Francis. Available at: https://www.perlego.com/book/2193514/corrections-in-the-community-pdf (Accessed: 15 October 2022).

MLA 7 Citation

Latessa, Edward, and Brian Lovins. Corrections in the Community. 7th ed. Taylor and Francis, 2019. Web. 15 Oct. 2022.