Introduction to Homeland Security, Third Edition
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Introduction to Homeland Security, Third Edition

David H. McElreath, Daniel Adrian Doss, Barbara Russo, Greg Etter, Jeffrey Van Slyke, Joseph Skinner, Michael Corey, Carl J. Jensen III, Michael Wigginton, Jr., Robert Nations

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eBook - ePub

Introduction to Homeland Security, Third Edition

David H. McElreath, Daniel Adrian Doss, Barbara Russo, Greg Etter, Jeffrey Van Slyke, Joseph Skinner, Michael Corey, Carl J. Jensen III, Michael Wigginton, Jr., Robert Nations

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About This Book

Introduction to Homeland Security, Third Edition provides the latest developments in the policy and operations of domestic security efforts of the agencies under the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. This includes the FBI, Secret Service, FEMA, the Coast Guard, TSA and numerous other federal agencies responsible for critical intelligence, emergency response, and the safety and security of U.S. citizens at home and abroad. Changes in DHS and domestic security are presented from pre-September 11, 2001 days, to include the formation of DHS under President George W. Bush, all the way through to the current administration. Through this, the many transformative events are looked at through the lens of DHS's original establishment, and the frequent changes to the various agencies, organization, reporting structure, funding, and policies that have occurred since.

This new edition is completely updated and includes coverage of topics relevant to homeland security operations not covered in any other text currently available. This includes highlighting the geopolitical context and the nature of global terrorism—and their implications—specifically as they relate to threats to the United States. Partnerships and collaboration with global allies are highlighted in the context of their relevance to international trade, domestic policies, training, and security. The book ends with a look at emerging threats and potential new, creative solutions—and initiatives in-process within the government—to respond to and address such threats.

Key Features:

  • Explores the history and formation of the Department of Homeland Security, recent developments, as well as the role and core missions of core agencies within DHS

  • Outlines man-made threats, intelligence challenges, and intra-agency communication, planning, and operations

  • Looks critically at the role of geopolitical dynamics, key international allies, and their influence on domestic policy and decision-making

  • Covers the latest developments in programs, legislation, and policy relative to all transportation and border security issues

  • Examines current issues and emerging global threats associated with extremism and terrorism

  • Addresses natural and man-made disasters and the emergency management cycle in preparing for, mitigating against, responding to, and recovering from such events

Introduction to Homeland Security, Third Edition remains the premier textbook for criminal justice, homeland security, national security, and intelligence programs in universities and an ideal reference for professionals as well as policy and research institutes.

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Introduction to Homeland Security and Emergency Management

I believe that man will not merely endure: he will prevail.1
—William Faulkner
The objectives of this chapter are to:
  • Familiarize readers with the concept of homeland security;
  • Understand the history of homeland security;
  • Introduce the all-hazards concept;
  • Examine a brief history of disasters that have impacted the United States;
  • Discuss the complexity of homeland security;
  • Introduce multiple perspectives of homeland security; and
  • Emphasize the importance of homeland security for the continuance of society and of the nation.

1.1 Introduction

As stated by William Faulkner in his speech at the Nobel Prize banquet in 1950, “[M]an will not only endure, but will prevail” (Hoyt, 2013, p. 34).2 The words of Faulkner can well be used to describe disaster response and resilience and the challenges faced by the nation in regard to homeland security. Disasters challenge individuals and communities. These events change lives and in many cases are responsible for significant injuries, physical damages, financial losses, and even deaths. Disasters challenge the human spirt and test the resiliency of both body and spirit.
The world is an active, dynamic, and ever-changing place. Since the emergence of the nation-state and the concept of national sovereignty, nations have formed and competed for power, wealth, and influence. Within the global community, diversity, economics, social standing, politics, religion and ethnicity have defined and redefined us, serving as the basis for national alliances as well as opponents.
Figure 1.1 Satellite image of Hurricane Katrina.
(Source: National Weather Service)
From a perspective of security, domestic as well as from international threats, safety and security are the critical themes. The safety and security of our families, our homes, our nation, and our global community remain critical concerns. Though some may debate the point, we are very fortunate to live in the United States.
Our nation is not without its threats, but it remains a nation of hope and promise. Since its founding, it has proven to be a land of opportunity. It is a nation that many risk their lives to enter, understanding the nation presents countless opportunities. For many, it remains, as stated by President Ronald Reagan, a “destination, a shining city upon a hill whose beacon light guides freedom-loving people everywhere, where the hope of a better life can be achieved” (DeMarco, 2013, p. 69).3 It is a nation built on the concept of freedom and respect for individual rights, but it is not a nation without challenge. Though reexaminations of immigration and immigration policies are underway, the nation remains remarkably open.
The safety and security of our nation, our communities, and our citizens cannot be taken for granted. Life is fragile, often much more so than many realize. Events can and do occur that change or even end lives. What we know about the future is that it is a balance between certainty and uncertainty. From a homeland security and emergency management perspective, we can be certain that something uncertain will occur in the future. What we hope is that we will be prepared to respond to events that threaten our safety as quickly and as effectively as possible. Often, lives, property, and related infrastructure depend upon rapid and efficient responses by our nation’s first responders.

1.2 Safety and Security

Our nation has been shaped by moments and events in times of both conflict and peace. The origins of our citizens reflect what may be considered the most diverse of any nation. The United States of America is a nation that continues to be a melting pot from which emerge Americans. It is a nation that plays a major role on the world stage. As a powerful member of the global community, it exerts significant power and influence.
The attacks on September 11, 2001, were a substantial game changer for our nation. The threat posed by radical international extremists became painfully apparent. The destruction inflicted (both physically and psychologically) would serve as a catalyst for change, not only domestically, but also globally. The results of the attacks led to diplomatic, economic, and military action that continue two decades later.
Eleven days after the September 11, 2001, extremists’ attacks on New York and Washington, D.C., Pennsylvania Governor Tom Ridge was appointed as the first Director of the Office of Homeland Security in the White House. The office was tasked with the oversight of the development and coordination of a comprehensive national strategy to safeguard the country against extremism and to respond to any future attacks. Within this national strategy, local, state, tribal, and federal agencies gained new roles and expectations toward ensuring domestic security.
After the attacks of September 11, 2001, a major reexamination of domestic security occurred. President George W. Bush proposed the creation of a new Department of Homeland Security. Bush stated, “America needs a single, unified homeland security structure that will improve protection against today’s threats and be flexible enough to help meet the unknown threats of the future”4 (Cook & Raia, 2017, p. 136).
A decision was made to create a new agency, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), that was entrusted with the protecting of American society. As a result, in November 2002, Congress enacted the Homeland Security Act creating the Department of Homeland Security as a Cabinet-level department tasked with coordinating and unifying national homeland security efforts. Opening its doors on March 1, 2003,5 the Department of Homeland Security included over 20 agencies with various domestic security roles into the new organization. The role and mission of the DHS is to “ensure a homeland that is safe, secure, and resilient against terrorism and other hazards.”6 All missions of the DHS involve a variety of goals and objectives that “prevent, to protect, to respond, and to recover, as well as to build in security, to ensure resilience, and to facilitate customs and exchange.”7 The DHS does not accomplish its missions alone. Instead, it involves the cooperation of a plethora of individuals, government agencies, and private entities.8
Over the years since the founding of the Department of Homeland Security, the United States and much of the world were transformed. Conflicts, attacks, and threats of attacks, combined with the impact of natural and man-made disasters, forced many nations to reexamine domestic safety and security. Within these examinations, national security, vital national interests, and the safety of nations and their populations became even greater concerns.
For any nation, domestic security does not occur in a vacuum; rather, it is multidimensional and depends on the role of the nation in the international community. It has potentially global ramifications. Security includes responders and the development and implementation of response strategies, including local responders to an international recovery effort. It includes professionals and volunteers and is built on a foundation of the philosophy that every disaster is local in nature and that event response must involve a whole community response strategy. Event response is also built on the understanding that it unfolds in a setting of uncertainty. Threats facing our nation and allies are often complex, fluid, evolving, and changing, and in some cases, they are difficult to characterize. From each new event, new lessons are learned. It is hoped that, from those lessons, event response and resiliency are improved.
The United States is a major player on the world stage in a wide range of areas; economically, socially, politically, informationally, and militarily. Our nation’s economy is a major part of the global economy. Imports and exports, fueled by domestic consumption, have redefined trade and with it global economics and market access. Our nation is dependent upon international trade and commerce. As a result, it is important that the international community maintain a reasonable level of stability economically, socially, and politically.

1.3 Threats Are a Step Away and Often Walk among Us

As mentioned earlier, the future is uncertain. Intentional man-made events, natural disasters, and accidents change and dramatically disrupt lives. As an example, over the span of a few short days in April 2013, the United States experienced two events that captured our attention and, in different ways, displayed an essential need for coordinated efforts between homeland security, public safety, emergency management, and the community.
The 2013 Boston Marathon bombing and the explosion of a fertilizer plant in Texas are examples of events that may challenge the safety of our communities, the capabilities of our response community, and the resiliency of our people. In both cases, responders reacted quickly to save lives and limit damage. Of these two events, one was a tragic industrial accident whereas the second was an intentional attack. These events are just two examples of the types of events that may occur and how the response community responds in an environment of uncertainty.
Throughout our history, our nation and our communities have demonstrated significant response and resiliency when faced with adversity. Our nation has endured wars and military conflicts, responded to and recovered from natural disasters (e.g., droughts, pestilence, and diseases), and internal disputes associated with hate crimes and domestic terrorism and endured a plethora of natural disasters and man-made accidents. Each experience presents lessons from which steps may be taken toward the improvement of response capabilities and abilities, ultimately contributing toward improved societal security and safety.
As an example, the enactment of fire codes, building safety standards and inspection, and advancements in fire technologies have resulted from lessons learned from fire-related disasters, many of which resulted in loss of life and property. Similarly, many of the changes in airport security, including the creation of the Transportation Security Administration, occurred in response to the attacks of September 11, 2001. Despite any increase in knowledge or changes in safety and security standards or policies, our nation and the communities within our nation remain vulnerable to natural and man-made threats.
Our history serves as an outstanding point from which we can anticipate our future. From this historical analysis, today’s homeland security and emergency management professional may determine the reasonable threats most likely to impact their communities and, with that determination, plan for and develop response strategies, including mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery: the basic components of emergency management.
The need to remain vigilant regarding our preparedness for both natural and man-made incidents is important. We must possess a strong ability to prepare for, respond to, mitigate, and recover quickly from any event. We must glean lessons learned from our experiences with events and apply these lessons toward reducing the chances of the reoccurrence of such incidents.
As the second decade of the twenty-first century draws to a close, homeland security and emergency management continue to evolve. These disciplines are more than merely acknowledging the dangers of man-made and natural events. These are disciplines that involve art and science and contain organizations that are important to our nation’s infrastructure. These disciplines involve professionals and volunteers working for hundreds of agencies, with the goal of protecting lives and property. The response community is composed of our friends and neighbors, working to ensure that, in times when our nation and the communities of our nation are in the greatest of need, responders are ready to assist.
As stated, homeland security and emergency management are much more than mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. Homeland security and emergency management are complex domains working to respond to hundreds, if not thousands, of threatening possibilities with imaginative countermeasures. They integrate numerous agencies, organizations, and people; affect laws, regulations, and policies; and require a vast range of tangible and intangible resources. These disciplines are viewed from a variety of different perspectives and involve every facet of American society.

1.4 Why Homeland Security and Emergency Management?

As stated, our nation is not the only nation to face a wide range of threats from natural and man-made events that can well overwhelm the resources of local communities. Within our global community, hundreds of examples exist of events that threaten individual and community safety. During recent years, a few of the major events that have been witnessed include earthquakes, industrial accidents, and attacks by extremists. History is filled with events that...

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