A Modern Grammar for Biblical Hebrew
eBook - ePub

A Modern Grammar for Biblical Hebrew

Duane A. Garrett, Jason S. DeRouchie

  1. 366 pages
  2. English
  3. ePUB (mobile friendly)
  4. Available on iOS & Android
eBook - ePub

A Modern Grammar for Biblical Hebrew

Duane A. Garrett, Jason S. DeRouchie

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About This Book

A Modern Grammar for Biblical Hebrew is a complete revision of Duane Garrett's respected 2002 release originally entitled A Modern Grammar for Classical Hebrew. In addition to the revisions and contributions from new coauthor Jason DeRouchie, the book now includes the answer key for an all-new companion workbook and an updated vocabulary list for second year Hebrew courses.

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Information

Publisher
B&H Academic
Year
2019
ISBN
9781087703497

Chapter 1The Hebrew Alphabet and Vowels

The Hebrew alphabet consists entirely of consonants, the first being א (Aleph) and the last being ת (Taw). The standard script for biblical Hebrew is called the square or Aramaic script. Modern Hebrew uses a wide variety of scripts.

A. The Consonants

1. The Letters of the Alphabet

To master the Hebrew alphabet, first learn the signs, their names, and their alphabetical order.
Table 1.1. The Hebrew Alphabet
1 א Aleph 7 ז Zayin 13 מ Mem 19 ק Qoph
2 ב Beth 8 ח Heth 14 נ Nun 20 ר Resh
3 ג Gimel 9 ט Teth 15 ס Samek 21 שׂ Sin
4 ד Daleth 10 י Yod 16 ע Ayin 22 שׁ Shin
5 ה Hey 11 כ Kaph 17 פ Pe 23 ת Taw
6 ו Waw 12 ל Lamed 18 צ Tsade
The alphabet has 23 letters, but in biblical times שׂ (Sin) and שׁ (Shin) were counted as one letter, and thus it had 22 letters. It is written from right to left, so that in the word written אשׁ, the letter א is first and the letter שׁ is last.

2. Letters with Final Forms

Five letters have final forms. Whenever one of these letters is the last letter in a word, it is written in its final form rather than its normal form. For example, the final form of צ (Tsade) is ץ. Both forms represent the same letter; it is simply written differently if it is the last letter in the word. The five final forms are as follows.
Table 1.2. Consonants with Final Forms
Normal Form כ מ נ פ צ
Final Form ךְ ם ן ף ץ
  1. In מלךְ (mlk), מ (the first letter, reading right to left) has the normal form, but the last letter in the word is כ in its final form (ךְ).
  2. In לכם (lkm), כ has the normal form, but מ has the final form (ם).
Blackboard 1.1
Blackboard 1.1. The Use of Final Forms of Letters

3. Confusing Letters

Hebrew can be difficult to read because many letters look similar. Observe the letters in the following chart. In each box, you see a series of letters that look like one another. Be sure that you can distinguish which letter is which.
Table 1.3. Easily Confused Letters
צ ע ם ט מ ס ן ז ו י ךְ ר ד
פ כ ב ת ח ה ו ג נ

4. The Phonetic Value of the Alphabet

For learning the alphabet, Hebrew consonants can be divided conveniently into six groups: begadkephat letters, sibilants, ט and ק, gutturals, liquids, and nasals. These six groups are not built around phonetic definitions. They simply provide a framework for learning to pronounce the letters of the Hebrew alphabet.

a. Begadkephat Letters

Referred to as the begadkephat letters, the letters ב, ג, ד, כ, פ, and ת are unique in that each has two distinct phonetic values. Each of these may be found with a dot called a Daghesh Lene (בּ) or without the Daghesh Lene (ב).
  1. If the Daghesh Lene is present, the letter is a plosive, like the English P or B.
  2. If there is no Daghesh Lene, the sound is a fricative or spirant (there is a breathing sound, as with the English F sound).
  3. Do not think of the begadkephat letters as twelve different letters. There are only six, each with or without the Daghesh Lene.
  4. The Daghesh Lene is used only with these six letters.
  5. In a given word the same begadkephat letter will be written sometimes with and sometimes without a Daghesh Lene, according to rules we will learn in the next chapter.
Table 1.4. The “Begadkephat” Letters
With Daghesh Lene
בּ גּ דּ כּ פּ תּ
B G D K P T
boy good dot kite paste tin
Without Daghesh Lene
ב ג ד כ פ ת
V GH voiced C F unvoiced
very dog TH cool fix TH
house then thin

b. The Gutturals

Hebrew has four guttural letters: א, ע, ה, and ח. The sounds of these letters are made at the back of the throat. For English speakers, the “sound” of...

Table of contents

  1. Chapter 1: The Hebrew Alphabet and Vowels
  2. Chapter 2: Pointed Vowel Letters and the Silent Shewa
  3. Chapter 3: Daghesh Forte, Mappiq, Metheg, and Rules for Gutturals
  4. Chapter 4: Accent Shift and Vowel Changes
  5. Chapter 5: Gender and Number in Nouns
  6. Chapter 6: Hebrew Verbs
  7. Chapter 7: The Directive ה, Negative אַל and Interrogative ה
  8. Chapter 8: The Definite Article
  9. Chapter 9: Roots, Stems, and the Qal Qatal
  10. Chapter 10: The Conjunction and the Qal Yiqtol and Weqatal
  11. Chapter 11: The Qal Infinitive Construct and Wayyiqtol
  12. Chapter 12: The Construct Chain
  13. Chapter 13: Prepositions
  14. Chapter 14: Pronominal Suffixes on Nouns and Prepositions
  15. Chapter 15: Adjectives and the Qal Participles
  16. Chapter 16: Geminate and Segholate Nouns
  17. Chapter 17: Pronouns
  18. Chapter 18: More About יֵשׁ and אֵין and the Qal Imperative
  19. Chapter 19: Numbers
  20. Chapter 20: Stems, Roots, and Principal Parts
  21. Chapter 21: Principal Parts of Other Weak Roots in the Qal Stem
  22. Chapter 22: Characteristics of the Niphal, Piel, and Hiphil
  23. Chapter 23: Characteristics of the Pual, Hophal, and Hithpael
  24. Chapter 24: Principal Parts of Weak Roots in the Derived Stems
  25. Chapter 25: Pronominal Suffixes on Verbs
  26. Chapter 26: Infinitive Constructs with Suffixes and Infinitive Absolutes
  27. Chapter 27: The Qal Yiqtol and Wayyiqtol with Weak Roots
  28. Chapter 28: The Qal Imperative and Participle with Weak Roots
  29. Chapter 29: The Qal Qatal, Statives, and Passive Participle
  30. Chapter 30: The Qal Cohortative, Jussive, and Weyiqtol
  31. Chapter 31: The Niphal
  32. Chapter 32: The Piel and Pual
  33. Chapter 33: The Hiphil and Hophal
  34. Chapter 34: The Hithpael
  35. Chapter 35: The Alternative Doubled Stems
  36. Chapter 36: The Cantillation Marks and Other Masoretic Conventions
  37. Chapter 37: An Overview of Text Syntax and Literary Structure
  38. Chapter 38: More on Historical Discourse, Connectors, and Subordination
  39. Chapter 39: More on Anticipatory Discourse and Copular Clauses
  40. Chapter 40: Discourse Markers and More on Directive Discourse
  41. Chapter 41: An Overview of Poetry
  42. Appendix 1: Glossary for the Study of Hebrew Grammar
  43. Appendix 2: Hebrew-English Vocabulary—By Chapter
  44. Appendix 3: Vocabulary in Alphabetic Order
  45. Appendix 4: Principal Parts and Finite Verb Paradigms