Carl I. Fertman, Melissa L. Grim, Carl I. Fertman, Melissa L. Grim
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Health Promotion Programs
From Theory to Practice
Carl I. Fertman, Melissa L. Grim, Carl I. Fertman, Melissa L. Grim
Table of contents
About This Book
An incisive, up-to-date, and comprehensive treatment of effective health promotion programs In the newly revised Third Edition of Health Promotion Programs: From Theory to Practice, health and behavior experts Drs. Carl I. Fertman and Melissa Grim deliver a robust exploration of the history and rapid evolution of health promotion programs over the last three decades. The authors describe knowledge advances in health and behavior that have impacted the planning, support, and implementation of health promotion programs. With thoroughly updated content, statistics, data, figures, and tables, the book discusses new resources, programs, and initiatives begun since the publication of the Second Edition in 2016. "Key Terms" and "For Practice and Discussion Questions" have been revised, and the authors promote the use of health theory by providing the reader with suggestions, models, boxes, and templates. A renewed focus on health equity and social justice permeates much of the book, and two significant health promotion and education events- the HESPA ll study and Healthy People 2030- are discussed at length. Readers will also find:
A thorough introduction to health promotion programs, including the historical context of health promotion, settings and stakeholders for health promotion programs, advisory boards, and technology disruption and opportunities for health promotion.
Comprehensive explorations of health equity and social justice, including dicussions of vulnerable and underserved population groups, racial and ethnic disparities in health and minority group engagement.
Practical discussions of theory in health promotion programs, including foundational theories and health promotion program planning models.
In-depth examinations of health promotion program planning, including needs assessments and program support.
Perfect for undergraduate and graduate students studying public health, health administration, nursing, and medical research, Health Promotion Programs: From Theory to Practice is also ideal for medical students seeking a one-stop resource on foundational concepts and cutting-edge developments in health promotion programs.
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Carl I. Fertman, Melissa L. Grim, and M. Elaine Auld
Health Promotion in a New Health Era
In 2020 the new decade opened with COVID-19 ushering in a new health era with a new context for health, health promotion, and health promotion programs. The public paid attention to COVID-19. Fear was rampant. COVID-19 caused the public to be anxious and afraid. Hope about vaccines, drugs, and cures was high. The pandemic showed the power of actions at multiple levels by individuals, groups, healthcare systems, community human service organizations, businesses, schools, colleges and universities, and governments to combat the virus. The actions span from individual behaviors to governmental policies and legislation—hand washing, social distancing, and self-quarantine combined with stay-at-home orders and travel restrictions. Businesses made employee and customer health promotion and safety a priority. The actions had clear health outcomes that impacted individuals and whole populations of people and communities across the globe.
Conversely, the lack of action and delays to address the virus, to promote and protect health, had pervasive and negative, if not fatal, consequences for individuals and whole populations of people. The balance between health and economic systems was tested and debated, providing a context for action. Promoting and protecting health was laid bare at the intersection of health and economic status, with all sectors of the economy impacted by the virus, but with different economic groups and communities experiencing the virus in distinct and different ways. The lack of social justice and health equity added to the COVID-19 burden that many individuals and communities were already experiencing.
COVID-19 is a brutal exclamation point to America’s pervasive ill health. Americans with obesity, diabetes, heart disease, and other diet-related diseases were three times more likely to suffer worsened outcomes from COVID-19, including death. Had we flattened the still-rising curves of these conditions, it is quite possible that our fight against the virus would have looked very different. The need for health promotion programs is greater than ever.
In the new health era, health promotion is about so much more than about healthcare, where the focus is on tertiary prevention—improving the quality of life and reducing symptoms of a disease you already have (Figure 1.1). Health promotion is about factors outside the traditional boundaries of healthcare—health behaviors (tobacco use, sexual activity), social and economic factors (employment, education, income), and physical environment (air quality, water quality). These three combined (i.e. policies, programs, and health factors) are linked to 80 percent of the health outcomes to impact and improve length and quality of life (University of Wisconsin Public Health Institute & Robert Woods Johnson Foundation, 2021).
Health promotion programs are designed, implemented, and evaluated in complex and complicated dynamic environments. They are multifaceted and multi-leveled. We work directly with people trying to figure out how to best address their health needs. We work in schools, colleges and universities, communities, workplaces, and healthcare organizations. At the same time, we are surrounded by forces greater than any organization and group of individuals. The result is that processes of planning, implementing, and evaluating health promotion programs unfold in a nonlinear progression of small steps forward and sometime a couple steps backward. It is dynamic.
Health, Health Promotion, and Health Promotion Programs
Health promotion and health promotion programs are rooted in the World Health Organization’s (1947) definition of health as “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” While most of us can identify when we are sick or have some infirmity, identifying the characteristics of complete physical, mental, and social well-being is often a bit more difficult. What does complete physical, mental, and social well-being look like? How will we know when or if we arrive at that state?
In 1986, the first International Conference of Health Promotion, held in Ottawa, Canada, issued the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, which defined health in a broader perspective: “health has been considered less as an abstract state and more as a means to an end which can be expressed in functional terms as a resource which permits people to lead an individually, socially, and economically productive life” (World Health Organization, 1986). Accordingly, health in this view is a resource for everyday life, not the object of living. It is a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources as well as physical capabilities.
Arnold and Breen (2006) identified the characteristics of health not only as well-being but also as a balanced state, growth, functionality, wholeness, transcendence, and empowerment and as a resource. Perhaps the view of health as a balanced state between the individual (host), agents (such as bacteria, viruses, and toxins), and the environment is one of the most familiar. Most individuals can readily understand that occasionally the host-agent interaction becomes unbalanced and the host (the individual) no longer is able to ward off the agent (for example, when bacteria overcome a person’s natural defenses, making the individual sick).
An ecological perspective on health emphasizes the interaction between and interdependence of factors within and across levels of a health problem. The ecological perspective highlights people’s interaction with their physical and sociocultural environments. McLeroy et al. (1988) identified three levels of influence for health-related behaviors and conditions: (1) the intrapersonal level (or individual level), (2) the interpersonal level, and (3) the population level. The population level encompasses three types of factors: institutional or organizational factors, social capital factors, and public policy factors (Table 1.1).
Table of contents
Citation styles for Health Promotion Programs
APA 6 Citation
Education, S. for P. H. (2022). Health Promotion Programs (3rd ed.). Wiley. Retrieved from https://www.perlego.com/book/3277187/health-promotion-programs-from-theory-to-practice-pdf (Original work published 2022)
Education, Society for Public Health. (2022) 2022. Health Promotion Programs. 3rd ed. Wiley. https://www.perlego.com/book/3277187/health-promotion-programs-from-theory-to-practice-pdf.
Education, S. for P. H. (2022) Health Promotion Programs. 3rd edn. Wiley. Available at: https://www.perlego.com/book/3277187/health-promotion-programs-from-theory-to-practice-pdf (Accessed: 15 October 2022).
MLA 7 Citation
Education, Society for Public Health. Health Promotion Programs. 3rd ed. Wiley, 2022. Web. 15 Oct. 2022.