About This Book
Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination provides a comprehensive and compelling overview of what psychological theory and research have to say about the nature, causes, and reduction of prejudice and discrimination. It balances a detailed discussion of theories and selected research with applied examples that ensure the material is relevant to students.
This edition has been thoroughly revised and updated and addresses several interlocking themes. It first looks at the nature of prejudice and discrimination, followed by a discussion of research methods. Next come the psychological underpinnings of prejudice: the nature of stereotypes, the conditions under which stereotypes influence responses to other people, contemporary theories of prejudice, and how individuals' values and belief systems are related to prejudice. Explored next are the development of prejudice in children and the social context of prejudice. The theme of discrimination is developed via discussions of the nature of discrimination, the experience of discrimination, and specific forms of discrimination, including gender, gender identity, sexual orientation, age, ability, and appearance. The concluding theme is the reduction of prejudice.
The book is accompanied by a comprehensive website featuring an Instructor Manual that contains activities and tools to help with teaching a prejudice and discrimination course; PowerPoint slides for every chapter; and a Test Bank with short answer and multiple-choice exam questions for every chapter.
This book is an essential companion for all students of prejudice and discrimination, including those in psychology, education, social work, business, communication studies, ethnic studies, and other disciplines. In addition to courses on prejudice and discrimination, this book will also appeal to those studying racism and diversity.
I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal.”—Martin Luther King Jr. (August 28, 1963)
- Race and Human Culture
- Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination
- The Relationships among Stereotyping, Prejudice, and Discrimination
- Theories of Prejudice and Discrimination
- Where Do We Go from Here?
- Suggested Readings
- Key Terms
Box 1.1 Responding to Racial Injustice: Black Lives MatterOn May 4, 1970, four students engaged in a nonviolent protest against the war in Vietnam were killed by National Guardsmen on the campus of Kent State University in Ohio. Ten days later, police killed 2 students and wounded 12 others on another college campus. The first event is well known, as is the iconic photograph of a woman leaning over the body of a fellow student moments after he had been shot. The second event, which occurred on the campus of Jackson State University, received far less media coverage and far fewer people today know about it. Why? Was it because Jackson State was and is a predominantly Black university, whereas Kent State was and is predominantly White (Banks, 2015)? If so, would things be different if these events occurred today?Recent social movements suggest that the answer is yes. For example, following the charges against the “Jena 6” Black students, thousands of people participated in protests across the United States to express their outrage over this inequity in the administration of justice and these events received a great deal of media attention (Duster, 2007). Prominent columnists, such as Leonard Pitts of the Miami Herald, have also drawn attention to contemporary racial disparities in law enforcement. For example, discussing more recent deaths of young Black men at the hands of the police, Pitts (2015) noted thatIt has reached a point where you can’t keep the atrocities straight without a score card. Besides [Freddie] Gray [a 25-year-old African American man who suffered fatal injuries while in police custody], we’ve got Eric Harris, an unarmed black man shot in Tulsa, who cried that he was losing his breath … We’ve got Oscar Grant [fatally shot by police on the San Francisco Bay Area Transit System] … Eric Garner [who died from a chokehold administered by four New York City police officers]. We’ve got video of a black man named Walter Scott, wanted for a traffic violation and back child support, running from a police officer and being shot to death. We’ve got video of a white man named Michael Wilcox, wanted for murder, running toward a police officer, threatening him, daring him to shoot, refusing to remove his hands from his pockets, yet somehow not being shot.(para 12–14)These events and others, including the August 9, 2014, shooting of Michael Brown, an African American man, by a White police officer in Ferguson, Missouri, led to the Black Lives Matter (BLM) movement, which addresses what its organizers see as police brutality against African Americans in the United States. Journalist Jay Kang (2015) calls it “the most formidable American protest movement of the 21st century to date,” stating that the movement marriesthe strengths of social media—the swift, morally blunt consensus that can be created by hashtags; the personal connection that a charismatic online persona can make with followers; the broad networks that allow for the easy distribution of documentary photos and videos—with an effort to quickly mobilize protests in each new city where a police shooting occurs.(para 7)The BLM movement gained unforeseen global strength following the May 25, 2020, police killing of unarmed George Floyd as he lay handcuffed on the ground while Derek Chauvin, a Minneapolis, Minnesota, police officer, knelt on his neck for 8 minutes and 45 seconds. For thousands of protestors in the United States and internationally, Floyd’s death became a symbol for the numerous Black victims who came before him. Often, the focus is on the men who died while in police custody; however, the #saytheirnames movement (The African American Policy Forum, n.d.) is working to ensure that women such as Sandra Bland, who died in March of 2015 following a routine traffic stop in Hempstead, Texas, and Breonna Taylor, who was shot in her Louisville, Kentucky, apartment in March of 2020, are also recognized.The efforts of activists have led many to recognize—perhaps for the first time—how racially biased policing affects citizens of color in their respective countries (Brown, 2020). The need is great: Although Derek Chauvin was found guilty of unintentional second-degree murder, third-degree murder and second-degree manslaughter, the shootings have not ceased. The BLM movement has ignited an international conversation about these issues, and this conversation has been and will continue to be informed by social science research on the oppression of ethnic minorities in the criminal justice system.