Spanish Grammar
eBook - ePub

Spanish Grammar

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eBook - ePub

Spanish Grammar

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About This Book

Essential guide to Spanish language grammar as taught in courses from middle school through college or any online, self-taught, or tutor-based learning. This durable six page laminated guide will last your entire student career and beyond. The concise QuickStudy outline format means we fit an immense amount of need-to-know answers into a reference that is quick and easy to access with color coded sections and tables. A best-selling guide for over 25 years, users agree this guide is a must-have to boost grades and test scores while learning the second most widely spoken language by native speakers in the world.
6 page laminated guide includes:

  • The alphabet
  • Cardinals
  • Ordinals
  • Rules of stress
  • Articles
  • Syllabification
  • Nouns
  • Capitalization
  • Adverbs
  • Comparatives & superlatives
  • Prepositions
  • Adjectives
  • Pronouns
  • Verbs
  • Indicative mood
  • Subjunctive mood
  • Imperative mood
  • Ser & Estar
  • Reflexive verbs
  • Gustar

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INDICATIVE MOODExpresses statements of fact or asks questions
Present Indicative
Present indicative expresses actions or states that occur in the present or on a regular basis
  • Hablo español. (I speak Spanish. I do speak Spanish. I am speaking Spanish.)
  • Siempre estoy cansado. (I am always tired.)
Regular Verbs
Regular -ar, -er, and -ir verbs use these endings for the present tense:
  • -ar verbs: -o, -as, -a, -amos, -áis, -an
  • -er verbs: -o, -es, -e, -emos, -éis, -en
  • -ir verbs: -o, -es, -e, -imos, -ís, -en
Regular Present Tense Conjugations
hablar (to speak) comer (to eat) vivir (to live)
hablo como vivo
hablas comes vives
habla come vive
hablamos comemos vivimos
habláis coméis vivís
hablan comen viven
Irregular Verbs
Some Spanish verbs are irregular in the yo form only; others are irregular in the stem; others are a combination of both
Irregular Yo Forms
  • c zc: Verbs whose infinitives end in -cer and -cir follow this pattern; apart from the yo forms, the verbs are regular
    • agradecer (to thank) → agradezco, agradeces, agradece, agradecemos, agradecéis, agradecen
    • conducir (to drive) → conduzco, conduces, conduce, conducimos, conducís, conducen
    • conocer (to know) → conozco, conoces, conoce, conocemos, conocéis, conocen
    • crecer (to grow) → crezco, creces, crece, crecemos, crecéis, crecen
    • enflaquecerse (to get thin) → me enflaquezco, te enflaqueces, se enflaquece, nos enflaquecemos, os enflaquecéis, se enflaquecen
    • enriquecerse (to get rich) → me enriquezco, te enriqueces, se enriquece, nos enriquecemos, os enriquecéis, se enriquecen
    • envejecerse (to get old) → me envejezco, te envejeces, se envejece, nos envejecemos, os envejecéis, se envejecen
    • establecer (to establish) → establezco, estableces, establece, establecemos, establecéis, establecen
    • merecer (to deserve) → merezco, mereces, merece, merecemos, merecéis, merecen
    • nacer (to be born) → nazco, naces, nace, nacemos, nacéis, nacen
    • obedecer (to obey) → obedezco, obedeces, obedece, obedecemos, obedecéis, obedecen
    • ofrecer (to offer) → ofrezco, ofreces, ofrece, ofrecemos, ofrecéis, ofrecen
    • padecer (to suffer) → padezco, padeces, padece, padecemos, padecéis, padecen
    • parecer (to seem) → parezco, pareces, parece, parecemos, parecéis, parecen
    • producir (to produce) → produzco, produces, produce, producimos, producís, producen
    • reducir (to reduce) → reduzco, reduces, reduce, reducimos, reducís, reducen
    • traducir (to translate) → traduzco, traduces, traduce, traducimos, traducís, traducen
  • g in the yo form
    • caer (to fall) → caigo, caes, cae, caemos, caéis, caen
    • decir (to say) → digo, dices, dice, decimos, decís, dicen
    • hacer (to do, to make) → hago, haces, hace, hacemos, hacéis, hacen
    • poner (to put) → pongo, pones, pone, ponemos, ponéis, ponen
    • salir (to leave) → salgo, sales, sale, salimos, salís, salen
    • tener (to have) → tengo, tienes, tiene, tenemos, tenéis, tienen
    • traer (to bring) → traigo, traes, trae, traemos, traéis, traen
    • valer (to be worth) → valgo, vales, vale, valemos, valéis, valen
    • venir (to come) → vengo, vienes, viene, venimos, venís, vienen
  • oy in the yo form
    • dar (to give) → doy, das, da, damos, dais, dan
    • estar (to be) → estoy, estás, está, estamos, estáis, están
    • ir (to go) → voy, vas, va, vamos, vais, van
    • ser (to be) → soy, eres, es, somos, sois, son
  • Other verbs changing in the yo form
    • cabe...

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