Sports Training Principles
eBook - ePub

Sports Training Principles

An Introduction to Sports Science

Dr. Frank W. Dick O.B.E.

  1. 432 Seiten
  2. English
  3. ePUB (handyfreundlich)
  4. Über iOS und Android verfĂŒgbar
eBook - ePub

Sports Training Principles

An Introduction to Sports Science

Dr. Frank W. Dick O.B.E.

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Über dieses Buch

This is the fully revised sixth edition of this ultimate reference tool for all coaches responsible for training athletes to fulfill their performance potential. Written by world-renowned and highly sought after coach and President of the European Athletics Coaches Association, Frank W. Dick, with contributions from Professor John Brewer (St Mary's University, Twickenham, UK), Dr Penny Werthner (University of Calgary, Canada), Dr Scott Drawer (RFU, UK), Vern Gambetta (Sports Training Systems), Dr Cliff Mallett and Professor David Jenkins (University of Queensland, Australia), and Professor Timothy Noakes (University of Cape Town, South Africa), this textbook comprehensively covers the core aspects of sports coaching which can be applied to all sports and disciplines. This new edition has been extensively revised to incorporate the latest theory and practice in sports training and coaching, with supplementary contributions from international experts. The book covers the key sports science topics: Anatomy and physiology; Biomechanics, Psychology; Nutrition; Performance Analysis; Training; and Coaching methods This is a highly recommended resource for students of applied sports science, sports coaching, sports development, PE teachers, fitness advisers, coaches and athletes.

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An athlete may be thought of, structurally, as a series of connected rods. The design of each connection will determine the nature and range of movement between adjacent rods and, consequently, their potential function. These connections are the joints; the rods are the bones. Combined, they form the skeletal system. The movement at any given joint is made possible by the pull of muscle on bone across the joint. The total arrangement of muscle and its attachment to bones forms the muscular system. Part 1 looks at these two systems, and the mechanical laws which they must obey, to effect an appreciation of the athlete’s aggregate movement potential for the expression of energy.
So, part 1 serves as an introduction to the sciences of anatomy, kinesiology and biomechanics. These sciences are fundamental to the coach in the design and selection of exercise on the one hand, and technique development and analysis on the other.



It is easy to understand how a wheel spins about an axle, and at right angles to that axle. If the athlete had wheels instead of arms and legs, the axles being located at the shoulders and at the hips, it would again be easy to understand why the wheels would rotate or spin at right angles to the body and on the same plane as the direction in which the athlete was moving. If the axles are now faded out in the mind’s eye and the arms and legs are considered as rotating like wheels – not round and round, but forwards and backwards like pendulums – it appears that the body is equipped with invisible axles, or axes, and that the movement at the joints is rotation. However, whereas the wheel may rotate on one plane only, the body’s joints permit greater freedom of movement.
FIGURE 1.1 The body’s axes
Our bodies are three-dimensional. There are three axes of rotation – vertical, transverse and anterior-posterior – for the body as a whole and, in principle, at each joint. We will now look at the axes and consider them in the light of the whole body movement and the movement at various joints (figure 1.1).
Vertical axis
The vertical axis is the long axis of the body and is that about which the figure skater spins, or the ballet dancer pirouettes.
If the body is tilted to lie parallel with the ground (i.e. horizontal) rotation is still possible about the long axis (e.g. the child rolling sideways downhill). Although horizontal, the rotation is described as about the body’s vertical axis. In describing rotations, it is important to identify clearly the axes under consideration as if the person is standing. Very little confusion arises when discussing the whole body in flight, but occasionally problems arise with a particular joint action. For example, just as the long axis of the body is referred to as the vertical axis, so also is the long axis through a joint. Hence the actions of turning out one’s feet like Charlie Chaplin, twisting one’s head and shoulders to the rear, and turning off a tap (with elbow extended) are all examples of rotation about the long/vertical axis. Taking the last example, however, consider the arm held out to the side (abducted) and swung forwards, as in a discus throw. This rotation is about the vertical axis through the shoulder, while long axis rotation of the arm which will influence the attitude of the discus, will, in this case, be about the transverse axis through the shoulder. The moral of the story is to be precise in defining axes.
Transverse axis
The transverse axis is that described in the ‘wheels for limbs’ reference above. These particular axes would apply to shoulder and hip. Examples of rotation about these axes in the athlete are: kicking a ball, the pulling action of the arms in swimming, and the piking to extension movements of the gymnast. Returning to the vertical axis situation mentioned above, rotations about the transverse axis become rotations about the vertical axis when the arm is abducted. For example, the actions of underarm bowling and the forehand in tennis are similar in terms of movement at the shoulder joint, although different muscles may be involved due to changing angles of pull on levers. Consequently, when considering transverse axis rotations, one must also consider rotations with an abducted limb. These include the pull-through of the hurdler’s trail leg into the line of running, and the golfer’s swing.
The transverse axis of the body as a whole is that about which the trampolinist or springboard diver rotates in a front or back somersault....


  1. Cover
  2. Half-title page
  3. Title page
  4. Table of Contents
  5. Preface
  6. Introduction
  7. Part 1 Rods to Levers
  8. 1 The Working Parts
  9. 2 Structural Changes in the Growing Child
  10. 3 Basic Mechanics
  11. Part 2 The Living Machine
  12. 4 Nutrition
  13. 5 The Oxygen Transporting System
  14. 6 The Working Muscle
  15. 7 The Fluid Systems
  16. 8 The Hormones
  17. 9 Physiological Differences in the Growing Child
  18. Part 3 Mission Control
  19. 10 Sport Psychology for Coaches
  20. 11 Perceptual-Motor Learning
  21. 12 Psychological Changes and the Growing Child
  22. Part 4 The Language of Training Theory
  23. 13 Fitness
  24. 14 Theory and Practice of Strength Training
  25. 15 Theory and Practice of Speed Development
  26. 16 Theory and Practice of Endurance Development
  27. 17 Theory and Practice of Mobility Development
  28. 18 Evaluation in Sport
  29. Part 5 Planning the Programme
  30. 19 Periodising the Year
  31. 20 Reflections on Periodisation
  32. 21 Units, Microcycles, Mesocycles and Macrocycles
  33. 22 Adaptation to Loading
  34. 23 Training v Straining
  35. 24 Competition Period
  36. 25 Fitting Things Together
  37. Appendices
  38. eCopyright