Fundamentals of Literacy Instruction & Assessment, Pre-K-6
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Fundamentals of Literacy Instruction & Assessment, Pre-K-6

Martha Hougen, Susan Smartt, Martha Hougen, Susan Smartt

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eBook - ePub

Fundamentals of Literacy Instruction & Assessment, Pre-K-6

Martha Hougen, Susan Smartt, Martha Hougen, Susan Smartt

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Listed by the National Council on Teacher Quality's 2020 Teacher Prep Review as one of 14 exemplary texts covering all five elements of effective reading instruction! Understand the science of reading and how to implement evidence–based instruction to increase the reading and writing achievement of pre-K–6 students, including those at risk for reading difficulties. Fully revised and updated, this core text covers the research base for structured literacy instruction and practical guidance on the essential components of literacy instruction: oral language, phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, fluency, comprehension, handwriting, spelling, and writing. Woven throughout this new edition are proven strategies for applying explicit, systematic instruction, including affirmative and corrective feedback, active engagement, effective practice, and ongoing assessment of student progress. Practical features such as instructional activities, scripted demonstrations of lessons, and online resources give readers explicit examples of how to translate the research into classroom instruction. Engaging, pragmatic, and accessible, this book is an essential text for preservice teacher candidates and a valuable resource for experienced teachers, teacher educators, administrators, and other professionals involved in teaching foundational literacy skills. WHAT'S NEW:

  • New chapters focused on: assessment basics· standards to guide instruction · development of social-emotional skills and early language · advanced word study · English learners · supportive technology · role of reflection in planning instruction
  • Revised chapters on: foundational skills of literacy acquisition and instruction to develop phonological and phonemic awareness · basic phonics · beginning and advanced handwriting, spelling, composition, and strategic writing · fluency · vocabulary · comprehension · disciplinary literacy · integrated lesson plans
  • New features: Reflect boxes that encourage critical thought · multiple-choice Knowledge Assessment questions · revised Application Activities · vignettes, case studies, numbered text boxes, and sample activities and scripts
  • Updated information on: structured literacy · data-based decision making · MTSS · metacognitive awareness · formal and informal assessments to guide instruction · standards-based instruction including the Common Core State Standards and the Knowledge & Practice Standards for Teachers of Reading

ONLINE COMPANION MATERIALS: Online Resource Appendix addressing each topic, PowerPoint slides for each chapter, an answer key for the Knowledge Assessment questions, sample lesson plans, and sample syllabi for teacher educators. Learn more about the new edition! Watch a webcast with editors Martha Hougen, Ph.D. and Susan Smartt, Ph.D.

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The Foundational Skills of Literacy Acquisition and Instruction
Oral Language and Listening Skill Development in Early Childhood
Christie Cavanaugh
A pre-K teacher remarked to her program director: “I teach 12 children in a pre-K class. They’re all very different, but I notice major differences in their language. Some seem to pay attention when I give directions or read to them, while others don’t seem like they’re listening. When I ask questions, a few children respond, while others look confused and don’t respond at all. Some are talking clearly and using sophisticated vocabulary and syntax while others are hard to understand—even the other children don’t understand a few of them in the class. Some children confuse words and mix sounds in words, saying things like ‘ef-a-lent’ instead of ‘elephant,’ or ‘capatiller’ for ‘caterpillar,’ whereas others aren’t talking at all. One child creates her own words, saying things like ‘exhaustified’ and at least two children don’t initiate much language and respond with one or two words when I know they need to be talking in phrases and sentences. How do I support all my students in developing language? They’re all so different!”
OBJECTIVESThis chapter addresses multiple topics related to oral language. After studying this chapter and completing the suggested activities, you will be able to:
1.Define and describe oral language and language components and how they impact literacy components.
2.Articulate the importance of oral language for a young child’s development of emergent and early literacy.
3.Identify examples of different types of vocabulary that comprise a young child’s repertoire of oral language skills.
4.Name three basic strategies to prompt language or “invite children to talk.”
5.Demonstrate the ability to respond to children’s responses using evidence-based language facilitation strategies and rich language models.
6.Incorporate oral language building into read-alouds using evidence-based practices.
7.Delineate at least five ideas for elevating the level of attention to oral language in your pre-K classroom or other setting.
8.Integrate the features of effective instruction into oral language-building activities.
9.Differentiate your teaching and scaffolding to match the range of oral language abilities among the young children in your class.
If you are reading this chapter, you have the opportunity to make an impact on a child’s life and are interested in learning more about how to do so as an effective teacher, specifically through building oral language. Even though there is a great deal of knowledge and skill needed to be an effective teacher, your abilities to enhance a child’s oral language development will contribute significantly to children’s acquisition of literacy skills and future academic success. The importance of oral language for reading and writing proficiency and academic success has been a well-accepted and supported tenet; however, in recent years it has gained increasing attention among educators and researchers. This research has been driven by the understanding that the development of concepts and background knowledge is necessary for comprehending what is read and spoken. For children to make sense of concepts and background knowledge, they must have an understanding of words, the multiple meanings of words, and how words are combined to convey ideas (Neuman, Kaefer, & Pinkham, 2014). What you learn in this chapter will solidify your understanding of the connections among language, vocabulary, and literacy. In addition, your new knowledge will also equip you with the knowledge and skills to make appropriate connections when you teach young children. You will learn to contribute positively to a child’s oral language development through the process of 1) providing children opportunities to talk, 2) building on children’s verbal expressions by using language facilitation strategies, and 3) creating an environment that invites children to continue practicing and developing their oral language skills.
The sections that follow begin with answers to the Big Idea Guiding Questions, as discussed in Chapter 1.
Oral language is what is used to express ourselves verbally and provides the ability to understand language produced by others. It comprises words and how the words are combined in phrases and sentences while one is communicating verbally. Oral language is dependent on vocabulary as well as other language components. Because vocabulary is both expressive and receptive and is required in written and oral forms for speaking, listening, writing, and reading, it is easy to see the connections between vocabulary and oral language. Oral language relies on expressive use and receptive understanding of words in oral form for speaking and listening. Even though oral language does not directly involve reading and writing of the printed form, it contributes to the development of language required for reading and writing. If a child knows the meaning of a word in oral form, the child will understand it in print. For example, a young child learns to use the word dog for labeling a dog—first a specific dog and then all dogs. The concept of a dog for which the young child has learned the label is developed enough so that when the child encounters the printed word dog, he or she is able to link the oral word and the concept of a dog to the written form and thus comprehend written language through this linkage.
To understand oral language, it is important to have a general understanding about all of the components of language—any language. Every language is defined by five components: phonology, morphology, semantics, syntax, and pragmatics. The general forms of language, oral or written, can be described using these five components. The paragraphs that follow define each term and offer specific examples of each as they relate to oral language.
Phonology relates to the sounds of a language and the rules that govern how they are combined to form words. Because the focus of this chapter is on oral language specifically, it is important to note that a language cannot be presented in an oral form if phonology is absent. In other words, language requires sounds in order to communicate orally. Phonology has a strong connection to the development of phonological and phonemic awareness skills. Phonological and phonemic awareness are considered essential for early reading success (see Chapter 7). Children need to have the awareness of the sounds of our language and the ability to discriminate and isolate the sounds so that they can connect the sounds to print for reading, spelling, and writing. There are about 44 different sounds in our language and only 26 letters to represent all of these sounds in various combinations. For example, the sound for /f/ can be represented by these letters or combinations: f as in fan, ph as in phone or graph, gh as in cough, ff as in stiff, lf as in half. In addition, it is important to know that word me...

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