# The Creative Process

## Stories from the Arts and Sciences

## Charlotte L. Doyle

- 176 pages
- English
- ePUB (adaptĂ© aux mobiles)
- Disponible sur iOS et Android

# The Creative Process

## Stories from the Arts and Sciences

## Charlotte L. Doyle

## Ă propos de ce livre

The Creative Process: Stories from the Arts and Sciences asks how celebrated works of art and breakthroughs in science came to be. What was the first inkling? What were the steps and missteps along the way? How was the process experienced by the creative person as it proceeded? And what are the implications for the psychology of the creative process?

Each chapter focuses on a specific creative endeavor, situating the work in the context of domain, culture, and historical era. Then it traces the development of the workâfrom what we know of its beginnings to its fulfillment. Qualitative materialsâinterviews, notebooks, diaries, sketches, drafts, and other writingsâallow a story of the creative process as lived to emerge. The narratives exemplify established concepts in the psychology of creativity, propose broadening some, reveal the need for modification, and suggest new ones. Application of phenomenological frameworks illuminate the episodes in new ways as well. The case study approach proves again that each episode is unique, yet themes and variations come into view when the episodes are considered together in a final reflection.

From Darwin's theory to an unusual jazz sound, here are 11 fascinating stories of how specific works took shape. Psychologists, students interested in creativity, and all those intrigued by the process in any creative field will find this book essential reading.

## Foire aux questions

## Informations

# Part I Classic Case Studies of Creative EpisodesReflections and Extensions

# Chapter 1 How PoincarĂ© Inspired PsychologistsExperiences in a Mathematics Contest

It is time to penetrate more deeply and to see what goes on in the very soul of the mathematician. For this, I believe, I can do best by recalling memories of my ownâŠ I beg the readerâs pardon; I am about to use some technical expressionsâŠ I shall say, for example, that I have found the demonstration of such a theorem under such circumstances. This theorem will have a barbarous name, unfamiliar to many, but that is unimportant; what is of interest for the psychologist is not the theorem but the circumstances.(PoincarĂ©, 1908/1910, p. 326)

## PoincarĂ© Before Entering the Competition

^{ 1 }

*intrinsic motivation*(that which comes from within) with

*extrinsic motivation*(that which comes from outside incentives). They have shown that intrinsic rather than extrinsic motivation is more likely to lead to work judged to be creative (Amabile, 1996). Inventing in mathematics was intrinsically motivating for PoincarĂ©. He was drawn to it like metal to a magnet. Yet, motivations are often mixed. A mathematics competition was announced a few months later and the money and the prestige provided additional extrinsic motivation.

## The Prize Competition

*AcadĂ©mie des Sciences*in Paris challenged mathematicians âTo improve in some important way the theory of linear differential equations in a single independent variable.â Lazarus Fuchs was a leading German mathematician and the author of the theory. Jeremy Gray (2013), a mathematician, mathematics historian, and PoincarĂ© biographer, suggested that part of the reason for the choice of question was to spur French mathematicians to catch up and go beyond the subject of Fuchsâs work. Though France lost the war, here was an opportunity to âwinâ something over Prussia (Gray, 2013). The creative episode takes place in the context of a particular culture and a specific time in its history (Wallace, 1985; Gruber, 1981).

*domain*, a culturally defined subject area, and a

*field*, the people and institutions that provide opportunities and make decisions about whose work will become part of the domain. The schools and professors that educated PoincarĂ© in mathematics were part of the field. And so was the

*AcadĂ©mie*âan opportunity maker and gatekeeper for the domain of mathematics; its sponsoring the competition created opportunity and incentive for working on particular kinds of problems. PoincarĂ©âs (1908/1910) essay on the creative process in mathematics drew heavily on the experiences that resulted in his entry in the competition created by the field.

### The Road to a New Entry: Effortful Cognition, Heuristics, and Flow

For fifteen days I strove to prove that there could not be any functions like those I have since called Fuchsian functions. I was then very ignorant; every day I seated myself at my work table, stayed an hour or two, tried a great number of combinations and reached no results. One evening, contrary to my custom, I drank black coffee and could not sleep. Ideas rose in crowds; I felt them collide until pairs interlocked, so to speak, making a stable combination. By the next morning I had established the existence of a class of Fuchsian functions, those which come from the hypergeometric series; I had only to write out the results, which took but a few hours.(PoincarĂ©, 1908/1910, p. 326)

## Table des matiĂšres

- Cover
- Half-Title
- Title
- Copyright
- Dedication
- Contents
- Acknowledgments
- Illustration Permissions and Credits
- Introduction
- PART I: Classic Case Studies of Creative Episodes: Reflections and Extensions
- PART II: Creating as Navigating Among Different Psychological Worlds
- PART III: Focus on Intuition and Embodied Creating
- PART IV: Writers as Phenomenologists: Discoveries from Exploring the Inner Landscape
- PART V: Creating Collaborations in Science and Art
- Epilogue
- Index