How to Cite Emails in Harvard Style

Citing emails

Students are not required to cite every single email they have received as they write an essay or research paper. It is however a good idea to mention valuable emails you have received, such as the ones containing vital information sent by your instructor. It shows that you are serious about referencing and that you value their opinion.

We recommend you use the following structure to cite emails:

Email Harvard reference format:

Sender’s last name, initial. (Year). Subject line of Email. [email]

Examples:

  • Holding, J. (2017). “Graduation Speech” [email]
  • Franz, D. (2019). “Outboarding Process, Part 1” [email]
  • Gabriel, J. (2020) “Course Highlights” [email]


How to cite Music and Recordings in Harvard Style

Whether you’re looking to cite the latest hit by Drake or an album of Beethoven’s piano sonatas, we’ve got you covered.

Citing a single song or track on CD or vinyl

To cite a single song or track on CD or vinyl you will need the following:

  • Artist name
  • Year of publication
  • Title of song
  • Title of album
  • Audio format (CD/vinyl)
  • Place of publication
  • Record label

Format for citing a single song or track on CD or vinyl

Artist Name (Year of publication) ‘Title of Song’, Title of Album [Format]. Place of Publication: Record Label.

For example:

Michael Jackson (1982) ‘Billie Jean’, Thriller [Vinyl]. New York: Epic Records.

Format for citing an album on CD or vinyl

When citing an entire album you no longer need to include any track information.

The format for citing an album on CD or vinyl is as follows:

Artist Name (Year of publication) Title of Album [Format]. Place of Publication: Record Label.

For example:

Beyoncé (2016) Lemonade [CD]. New York: Columbia Records.

Pink Floyd (1979) The Wall [Vinyl]. New York: Columbia Records.

Citing music recordings on digital formats

When citing recordings on digital formats you no longer need to include information regarding the place of publication or record label. Instead, you must include a URL to your streaming/digital music platform source.

Format for citing a single track from a digital source

Artist Name (Year of publication) ‘Title of Song’, Title of Album. Available at: URL (Accessed: Day Month Year).

For example:

Nicki Minaj (2012) ‘Getting Paid’, Ghetto Barbie. Available at: https://www.last.fm/music/Nicki+Minaj/Ghetto+Barbie/Getting+Paid (Accessed: 19 September 2020).

Format for citing an album from a digital source

Artist Name (Year of publication) Title of Album. Available at: URL (Accessed: Day Month Year).

For example:

Bon Jovi (2000) Crush. Available at: https://open.spotify.com/album/0Q9SljCrM0CL0bR23MuP69 (Accessed: 9 January 2022).


How to cite Theses and Reports in Harvard Style

Students should consult academic theses and dissertations when writing their own academic papers. These can be found in student libraries and online archives and must be properly referenced to safeguard students from accusations of plagiarism.

Citing a printed thesis

To cite a printed thesis or dissertation you will need the following information:

  • Author name
  • Year of publication
  • Thesis title
  • Award and type of qualification
  • Awarding body

Format for citing a printed thesis: Harvard style

Surname, Initial(s). (Year of publication) Title. Award and type of qualification. Awarding body.

For example:

Robak, M. (2016) Practicing What We’re Taught: An Analysis of Pre-Clinical and Clinical Medical Education of Compassionate Care at Harvard Medical School. PhD thesis. Harvard University.

Delor, P. (2015) Technology, Consumerism and Development: A Study of Collaborative Consumerism and Market Relations in Developing Countries. Master’s thesis. Oxford University.

Citing a thesis available online

If a thesis is available online, in addition to the information above, you will also need to include the publication site of the thesis and the date on which you viewed the thesis.

Format for citing a thesis available online: Harvard style  

Surname, Initial(s). (Year of publication) Title. Award and type of qualification. Awarding body. Available at: URL (Accessed: Day Month Year).

For example:

Kyei-Nimakoh, M. (2017) Management and Referral of Obstetric Complications: A Study in the Upper East Region of Ghana. PhD thesis. Victoria University. Available at: https://vuir.vu.edu.au/35051/1/KYEI-NIMAKOH%20Minerva-

Thesis_nosignatures.pdf (Accessed: 15 November 2018).


How to cite Conference Papers in Harvard Style

A conference paper is a written document that researchers prepare when presenting their work orally at academic conferences and workshops.

To cite a conference paper in your reference list, you must include the following:

  • Author name
  • Conference date
  • Title of the paper
  • Title of the conference
  • Location of the conference
  • Link to online presentation (where available)

Format for citing a conference paper: Harvard style

Surname, Initial(s). (Year) ‘Conference paper title’, Conference Title. Location of conference, Date of conference.

For example:

Armstrong, D., Fogarty, G. and Dingsdag, D. (2007) ‘Scales measuring characteristics of small business information systems’, Proceedings of Research, Relevance and Rigour: Coming of Age: 18th Australasian Conference on Information Systems. Toowoomba, Australia, 5-7 December.

Winstone, N. and Boud, D. (2017) ‘Supporting students’ engagement with feedback: the adoption of student-focused feedback practices in the UK and Australia’, Annual Research Conference of the Society for Research into Higher Education. Newport, Wales, 6-8 December.

If the conference paper is available online, the format is as follows:

Surname, Initial(s). (Year) ‘Conference paper title’, Conference Title. Location of conference, Date of conference. Available at: URL (Accessed: Day Month Year).

For example:

Godfrey, W. R. (2017) ‘Luther on the Psalms’, Luther Today. Wittenberg, Germany, 11 August. Available at: https://www.ligonier.org/learn/conferences/luther-today-2017-regional-conference/luther-psalms (Accessed: 12 March 2021).


How to cite Films in Harvard Style

To cite a film in Harvard style you will need the following:

  • Title of the film
  • Film’s date of release
  • Name of director
  • Place of distribution
  • Name of production company

Film citation format: Harvard style

Film Title (Year of distribution) Directed by Director Initial(s). Surname [Film]. Place of distribution: Production company.

For example:

Citizen Kane (1941) Directed by O. Welles [Film]. Los Angeles: RKO Radio Pictures.

If the film was viewed on DVD or Blu-ray, the format is as follows:

Film Title (Year of distribution) Directed by Director Initial(s). Surname [DVD/Blue-ray]. Place of distribution: Production company.

For example:

Bridesmaids (2011) Directed by P. Feig [Blue-ray]. Los Angeles: Apatow Productions.

Citing a film streamed online

If you viewed a film on a streaming service like Netflix, Amazon Prime or Mubi, or on a catch-up service like BBC iPlayer or All 4, the format is as follows:

Film Title (Year of distribution) Directed by Director Initial(s). Surname. Available at: Name of Streaming Service (Accessed: Day Month Year).

For example:

Phantom Thread (2017) Directed by P. T. Anderson. Available at: Netflix (Accessed: 25 April 2022).


How to cite Speeches in Harvard Style

Citing Speeches

Students should not cite the speech in itself, but should cite the location where they found the speech. If the speech was found in a book, students should cite the book. And if the speech was found online, you should include the blog, website, podcast or video in the reference list.


How to cite Youtube Videos in Harvard Style

Aside from the cat videos, beauty vlogs and viral challenges, YouTube can be a powerful source of knowledge and numerous universities, research centres, thinktanks and educators regularly produce and distribute great content on YouTube.

To cite a YouTube video you will need the following:

  • Name of the account that published the video
  • Date the video was uploaded
  • Title of the video
  • URL

YouTube citation format: Harvard style

Name of account that published the video (Year video was uploaded) Title of the Video. Day Month the video was uploaded. Available at: URL (Accessed: Day Month Year).

For example:

CNN Business (2018) These are the most confusing questions Congress asked Zuckerberg. 24 January. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HHckZCxdRkA (Accessed: 17 March 2021).

World Economic Forum (2019) Innovation Skills and the Future of Jobs. 3 November. Available at:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KgI_z3ttFWs (Accessed: 23 May 2020).


How to cite Translated Books in Harvard Style

Citing translated books

Translating a novel or an epic poem is a complicated and labour-intensive endeavour. It is therefore important to credit the translator’s work by including their name in the reference list.

Format for citing translated books: Harvard style

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year published) Title. Translated by Translator Initial(s). Surname. Place of publication: Publisher.

For example:

Dostoevsky, F. (1994) The Karamazov Brothers. Translated by I. Avsey. Oxford: Oxford World Classics.

Alighieri, D. (2012) The Divine Comedy: Inferno, Purgatorio, Paradiso. Translated by R. Kirkpatrick. London: Penguin Classics.


How to cite Images in Harvard Style

People can be protective of their images and take badly to finding them used online without permission. Thankfully, the fair use doctrine allows both students and researchers to use copyrighted images without first having to acquire permission. However, the fair use doctrine does not protect students from plagiarism, therefore images must still be cited appropriately.

To cite an image it is important to include the following:

  • Creator name
  • Year of publication
  • Image title
  • Description of media
  • URL

Image citation format: Harvard style

Surname, Initial(s). (Year) Image Title [Description of media]. Available at: URL (Accessed: Day Month Year).

For example:

Gustafsson, J. (2005) Dog [Photograph]. Available at: https://www.flickr.com/photos/hunden/8545183695/in/photolist-e27ipn-aiTNYw-4CLJtR-XbiSoH-7QFV6c-SMQ3kL-wAuyJ6-RED8ts-25hDpuo-bFDKMM-btkyiC-p46xHE-RiaSLE-bFDKn4-pzTULx-8T3nXL-fVduaQ-aPR1RT-SLVKhH-P7r48L-7QKde3-hYEo5p-M82MKA-9t1T2c-K7EPSk-CED5W3-FAAAud-8DRPes-qrBkfC-4CR1Mj-7QKdnL-9SErb6-Z7waXA-232ok4m-h3gL6w-22hBtTh-6EuENc-opGBxD-du329G-QHraGc-57vwQ7-868hPT-ZMq6mw-24yqbT6-gCur4i-9SHj3q-25BQts4-rWEZPy-22de8h5-aJfzMn (Accessed: 7 July 2019).

Sato, A. (2010) Doge [Photograph]. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doge_(meme)#/media/File:Original_Doge_meme.jpg (Accessed: 13 December 2021).


How to cite Religious Texts in Harvard Style

To cite a religious text you will need the following:

  • Name of religious text
  • Surah and Ayah/Chapter and Verse number
  • Edition title
  • Date of publication
  • Publisher location
  • Publisher

A quick tip: religious works are generally treated as having no author.

Format for citing a religious text: Harvard style

Name of religious text. Chapter/Surah/Ayah/Verse number. Edition Title (Date). Publisher location: Publisher.

For example:

The Bible. Matthew 4:1. The Bible: Authorized King James Version (2017). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Qur’an. 14:33. The Holy Qur’an. Translated by Abdullah Yusuf Ali (2000). Hertfordshire: Wordsworth Editions Limited.