Chem Lab Basics
eBook - ePub

Chem Lab Basics

Mark Jackson, Frank Miskevich

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  1. 44 pages
  2. English
  3. ePUB (mobile friendly)
  4. Available on iOS & Android
eBook - ePub

Chem Lab Basics

Mark Jackson, Frank Miskevich

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About This Book

With the study of molecules and how they interact with one another, theory is important, but the lab is where the true excitement of chemistry lies. This 6 page laminated guide is intended to serve as a reminder and quick study review for all aspects of the chemistry lab, from safety to chemicals, to instruments, and safety again (first, last, and always!). Designed to find answers fast and to be spill proof it's perfect for high school and early college students studying chemistry, as well as anyone interested in learning how scientists safely study the molecules that make up everything around us.
6 page laminated guide includes:

  • Lab Safety Training
  • General Lab Guidelines
  • Working With Chemicals
  • Exposure to Chemicals
  • First Aid
  • Know Your Lab Reagents
  • Chemical Spills
  • Waste Management
  • Useful Chemical Information
  • Periodic Table Included
  • Lab Must-Knows
  • Safe Use of Lab Equipment
  • Data Manipulation
  • Preparing a Solution

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Useful Chemical Information
Liquid solubility rule: “Like dissolves like” Water, “the universal solvent,” is an excellent solvent for polar molecules like salts.
Boiling point: 100.0ºC
Freezing point: 0.0ºC
Density: 1.00 g/mL at 4ºC
Molar mass: 18.015 g
Vapor pressure: 23.8 mm Hg, 25ºC
Organic Compounds: General Rules
  • Nonpolar compounds (e.g., hexane and benzene) are soluble in nonpolar organic solvents, but insoluble in water. Oils tend to float on water (think about when you are washing oily or greasy dishes).
  • Polar compounds (e.g., amines, alcohols, and organic acids) tend to dissolve in water.
Organic Solvents
Organic Solvent
Boiling Point
Density (g/mL)
Molar Mass (g/mol)
Acetone
56ºC
0.79
58.08 polar
Acetic acid
118ºC
1.0446
60.052 polar
Benzene
80ºC
0.88
78.12 nonpolar
Carbon tetrachloride
77ºC
1.594
153.82 nonpolar
Chloroform
61ºC
1.4788
119.38 nonpolar
Diethyl ether
34.5ºC
0.713
74.12 nonpolar
Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)
189ºC
1.092
78.13 polar
Ethanol
79ºC
0.79
46.07 polar
Ethyl acetate
77ºC
0.895
88.11 polar
Ethylene glycol
195ºC
1.115
62.07 polar
Hexane
69ºC
0.659
86.18 nonpolar
Isopropanol
82ºC
0.79
60.11 polar
Methanol
65ºC
0.79
32.04 polar
Toluene
111ºC
0.87
92.15 nonpolar
Properties of Inorganic Salts (Aqueous Solubility)
Acetate
Nitrate
Perchlorate
Chlorate
Chloride
Bromide
Iodide
Fluoride
Sulfate
Carbonate
Sulfide
Phosphate
Hydroxide
Chromate
Oxide
Alkali
metals,
ammonium
Soluble
Soluble
Soluble
Soluble
Soluble
Forms hydroxide
Ca, Mg
Soluble
Soluble
Insoluble
Soluble
Insoluble
Insoluble
Sr, Ba
Soluble
Soluble
Insoluble
Insoluble
Insoluble
Insoluble
Fe, Cu, Zn
Soluble
Soluble
Insoluble
Soluble
Insoluble
Insoluble
Pb(II)
Soluble
Insoluble
Insoluble
Insoluble
Insoluble
Insoluble
Hg(I)
Soluble
Insoluble
N/A
Insoluble
Insoluble
Insoluble
Ag
Soluble
Insoluble
Soluble
Soluble
Insoluble
Insoluble
Flame Test
Characteristic colors of ion in a flame
Violet: Potassium, rubidium, and cesium
Blue: Copper (azure), lead, arsenic, and selenium
Green: Copper (emerald), barium (yellowish), and zinc (whitish)
Yellow: Sodium
Red: Lithium (carmine), strontium (scarlet), and calcium (yellowish)
Acids
Commercial Reagent
Hyd...

Table of contents