How to cite Books in APA Style

Citing books with one author

When citing a book or source with a single author, students are required to invert author names (last name provided first) and write the first name as an initial.

For example, the reference list entry for a source written by David Ricardo would begin with “Ricardo, D.” and one for a piece written by Karl Marx would begin with “Marx, K.”

After proving the author’s name, students are required to display the following:

  1. Year of publication (in brackets)
  2. Title (in italics)
  3. Edition (in brackets)
  4. City and/or state/country
  5. Publisher

 

Overall, a reference entry should appear as follows:

Last name, initial. (Year published). Title (Edition). City published: Publisher.

For example:

  • Kuhn, T. (2012). The Structure of Scientific Revolution (4th ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Saunders, G. (2017) Lincoln in the Bardo (1st ed.). New York: Random House.
  • Wootton, G. (1970) Interest-groups (1st ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Remember: Reference lists should be ordered alphabetically on the basis of the last name of the authors of each work. Should an author appear multiple times, students are required to list entries in chronological order, from earliest to the most recent.

 

Citing books with two or more authors

When citing a book or source with two or more authors, students are required to follow the same formatting as when citing a book from a single author; namely, inverting author names (last name provided first) and writing the first name as an initial, before displaying the following:

  1. Year of publication (in brackets)
  2. Title (in italics)
  3. Edition (in brackets)
  4. City and/or state/country
  5. Publisher

For in-text citations, when referring to a source with more than three authors, students can use the Latin term “et alia” (which means “and others” and is abbreviated to “et al.”). This abbreviation cannot be used for reference lists however, as students are required to name all the authors, even if there are a dozen of them.

A book with two or more authors will appear as follows:

Author 1 , Author 2 & Author 3 (Year published). Title (Edition). Publisher.

For example:

  • Arciero, G. & Bondolfi, G. (2009) Selfhood, Identity and Personality Styles (1st ed.). Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Gravelle, H. & Rees, R. (1981) Microeconomics (1st ed.). London: Longman.
  • Berger, P. & Luckmann, T. (1967) The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge (1st ed.). New York: Anchor.

 

Citing chapters in edited books

Citing chapters in edited books and anthologies is more complicated than citing books written by one or even multiple authors, as you are required to reference both the chapter’s authors and the anthology’s editors.

Notice however that the chapter title is not italicized to distinguish it from the book’s title:

Last name, initial. (Year). Chapter Title. In Editor Name (ed(s)) Book Title (Edition). City: Publisher.

For example:

  • Forester, J. (2008). Policy Analysis as Critical Listening. In Moran, M. et al. (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Public Policy (1st ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Lyons, T. & Jolley, D. (2018). Post-independence Africa. In Binns, T. et al. (eds) The Routledge Handbook of African Development (1st ed.). Abingdon: Routledge.
  • Rosenfeld, J. & Laird, J. (2016). Unions and Poverty. In Brady, D & Burton, L. (eds) The Oxford Handbook of the Social Science of Poverty (1st ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.


How to cite Lecture Notes in APA Style

How to cite lecture notes

At most universities, student are not required to cite their lectures. Most often, courses are built on external, academic sources, and students are encouraged to cite those sources directly and to cut out the middleman.

Nevertheless, if you choose to cite lecture notes, the APA Style Guide recommends you use the following structure.

APA Lecture note citation format:

Last name, initial. (Year). Course Title [Lecture Notes]. Unit Name and Code, University.

Tip: take note of the placement of the punctuation and use of italics.

Examples:

  • Naughton, S. (2018). Seminar 7: Transforming Organizations: strategy, structure and design [Lecture Notes]. Organisation Change Management BMO6624, Victoria University.
  • Paulson, P. (2016). Week 2: The Nature of Culture [Lecture Notes]. Anthropology 101, Columbia College.
  • Foster, T. (2004). Balance Sheets [Lecture Notes]. Financial Accounting 101, The University of Western Australia.


How to cite Conference Papers in APA Style

Citing conference papers

Conference papers are articles written to be submitted to academic conferences and workshops, during which researchers present their results to a community of experts, usually as an oral presentation or tabled discussion.

To cite a conference paper, you should include the following:

  1. The surname and initial(s) of the author
  2. Year of publication
  3. Title of the paper
  4. Name and initial of the editor (if available)
  5. Title of the conference
  6. Location of the conference
  7. Organization (if it doesn’t feature in conference title)

 

The APA Style Guide recommends you use the following structure.

APA Conference Paper citation format:

Last name, initial (Year). Conference paper title. In Editor initial, last name (Ed.), Proceedings Book Title. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Tip: take note of the placement of the punctuation and use of italics.

Examples:

  • Armstrong, D., Fogarty, G., & Dingsdag, D. (2007). Scales measuring characteristics of small business information systems. In W-G. Tan (Ed.), Proceedings of Research, Relevance and Rigour: Coming of age: 18th Australasian Conference on Information Systems. Toowoomba, Australia: University of Southern Queensland.
  • Winstone, N. & Boud, D. (2017). Supporting students’ engagement with feedback: the adoption of student-focused feedback practices in the UK and Australia. In Annual Conference of the Society for Research into Higher Education (SRHE). Newport, South Wales.
  • Hay, B. (2016). Drone tourism: a study of the current and potential use of drones in hospitality and tourism. In CAUTHE 2016: the changing landscape of tourism and hospitality: the impact of emerging markets and emerging destinations. Sydney, Australia.


How to cite Theses or Reports in APA Style

Citing theses or reports

Students should leverage unpublished theses and reports when writing their own academic papers. These can be found in student libraries and must be properly referenced to safeguard students from accusations of plagiarism.

To cite an unpublished thesis or report, it is important you include the following:

  1. Author
  2. Year of publication
  3. Title
  4. Level of Thesis
  5. University

Based on the APA style guide, we recommend you use the following structure.

APA Report or Thesis citation format:

Last name, initial. (Year published). Title. [Thesis Level]. University.

Examples:

  • Delor, P. (2015). Technology, Consumerism and Development: a study of collaborative consumerism and market relations in developing countries [MPhil Thesis]. Oxford University.
  • Robak, M. (2016). Practicing What We’re Taught: An Analysis of Pre-Clinical and Clinical Medical Education of Compassionate Care at Harvard Medical School [Doctor of Medicine Thesis]. Harvard University.
  • Kyei-Nimakoh, M. (2017). Management and referral of obstetric complications: a study in the upper east region of Ghana [PhD Thesis]. Victoria University.


How to cite Speeches in APA Style

Citing Speeches

Students should not cite the speech in itself, but should cite the location where they found the speech. If the speech was found in a book, you should cite the book. And if the speech was found online, you should include the blog, the website, the podcast, or the video in the reference list.


How to cite Films and Documentaries in APA Style

Citing films and documentaries

Citing short and full-length feature films is similar to citing TV shows (link). A number of referencing styles require you to include the name of the film director, producer, distributor and year of release. This also applies to the APA referencing system.

Based on the APA style guide, we recommend you use the following structure.

APA Film and Documentary citation format:

Producer Last Name, Initials. (Producer), & Director Last Name, Initials. (Director). (Year). Film title [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio.

Examples:

  • Welles, O. (Producer and Director). (1941). Citizen Kane [Motion Picture]. USA: RKO Radio Pictures.
  • Ruddy, A. (Producer), & Coppola, F. (Director). (1972). The Godfather [Motion Picture]. USA: Paramount Pictures.
  • Thomas, E. (Producer), & Nolan, C. (Director). (2010). Inception [Motion Picture]. USA: Legendary Pictures.


How to cite Youtube Videos in APA Style

Citing YouTube videos

Aside from the cat videos, beauty vlogs and viral challenges, YouTube is a powerful source of knowledge and numerous universities, research centers, think tanks and educators have created channels and regularly produce and distribute great content.

To cite a YouTube video, it is important you collect the following:

    1. Author
    2. Year, month and day of publication
    3. Video title
    4. URL

Based on the APA style guide, we recommend you use the following structure.

APA YouTube video citation format:

Last name, initial. (Year, month and day). Video Title [YouTube] Available at: URL

Examples:

  • CNN Business. (2018, January 24). These are the most confusing questions Congress asked Zuckerberg [YouTube]. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HHckZCxdRkA
  • Stanford. (2020, July 24). Drone copter to take flight for first time on Mars [YouTube]. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WtAWNeVrnck
  • World Economic Forum. (2019, November 3). Innovation Skills and the Future of Jobs [YouTube]. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KgI_z3ttFWs


How to cite Newspaper Articles in APA Style

Citing newspaper articles

Whether you cite daily, weekly or monthly publications; and whether the newspaper you have chosen to cite features articles on business, entertainment, politics or society, it is important that you locate the following information:

    1. Author
    2. Year, month, date of publication
    3. Title of article
    4. Newspaper
    5. URL if found online.

Based on the APA style guide, we recommend you use the following structure.

APA Newspaper article reference format:

Last name, initial. (Year, month date of publication). Title for article. Newspaper. URL.

Examples:

  • Schwartz, M. (2020, July 20). Stay Safe, Justice Ginsburg. New York Times. Available at: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/07/20/opinion/ruth-bader-ginsburg-health.html
  • Strauss, B. (2018, August 12). Ted Cruz’s Basketball Charm Offensive. The Atlantic. Available at: https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2018/08/ted-cruzs-basketball-charm-offensive/567104/
  • Billen, A. (2019, September 13). David Cameron Interview: Boris, Brexit and the Referendum. The Times. Available at: https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/david-cameron-interview-boris-johnson-brexit-and-the-referendum-9gkxqghv9


How to Cite Translated Books in APA Style

Citing translated books

Translating a novel or report is a complicated endeavor and translators often leave their mark on the translated work. It is therefore important to highlight the translator’s contribution by including their name in the reference list.

To cite a translated work, it is important to include the following:

    1. Author
    2. Year of translated publication
    3. Title
    4. Translator(s)
    5. City published
    6. Publisher

Based on the APA style guide, we recommend you use the following structure.

APA translated book citation format:

Last name, initial. (Year published). Title (Translator). City published: Publisher.

Examples:

  • Dostoevsky, F. (1994). The Karamazov Brothers (I. Avsey, Trans). Oxford: Oxford World Classics.
  • Alighieri, D. (2012). The Divine Comedy: Inferno, Purgatorio, Paradiso (R. Kirkpatrick, Trans). London: Penguin Classics.
  • Ludwig, E. (2005). Napoleon (E. Paul and C. Paul, Trans). London: Book Jungle


How to cite Images in APA Style

Citing images

People are quite protective about their images and take badly to finding them used online without permission. Thankfully, the fair use doctrine allows both students and researchers to use copyrighted images without first having to acquire permission from the copyright owner. The faire use doctrine does not protect students from plagiarism, however. So images must still be fully referenced.

To cite an image, it is important to include the following:

    1. Creator’s name
    2. Year of publication (if available)
    3. Image’s title (or a description)
    4. Type of work
    5. Website title
    6. A URL

Based on the APA style guide, we recommend you use the following structure.

APA Image citation format:

Last name, initial. (Year). Image Title [Online Image]. Website title. URL.

Examples:

  • Colli, M. (2012). Guggenheim Museum Bilbao [Online Image]. Flickr. Available at: https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/5757476385
  • Unknown. (Unknown). Goddess Hathor giving an Ankh to Nefertari [Online Image]. Wikipedia. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ankh_isis_nefertari.jpg
  • Crazzolara, T. (2018). Alpine Panorama [Online Image]. Wikipedia. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ankh_isis_nefertari.jpg