Any communication that cannot be retrieved by a reader – such as a private interview, email, or telephone conversation – is cited as a personal communication.

To cite a personal communication you will need the following:

  • Name(s) of communicator(s)
  • Medium of communication (email, text, Skype, etc.)
  • Date of communication

Personal communication format: Harvard style

Author/Sender/Speaker Surname, Initial(s). (Year of communication) Medium of communication to Receiver of communication, Day Month of communication.

For example:

Hardy, D. (2021) Email to George Owen, 11 February.

Broadchurch, C. (2022) Text message to Clive Woods, 7 March.