Introduction to Architectural Science
eBook - ePub

Introduction to Architectural Science

The Basis of Sustainable Design

Steven V. Szokolay

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eBook - ePub

Introduction to Architectural Science

The Basis of Sustainable Design

Steven V. Szokolay

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About This Book

Now in its third edition, this book provides the ideal and only reference to the physical basis of architectural design.

Fully updated and expanded throughout, the book provides the data required for architects to design buildings that will maintain the users comfort in a variety of conditions, with minimal reliance on energy intensive methods like air conditioning.

This is not a 'how to' book but answers the question why. It equips the reader with the tools to realize the full potential of the good intentions of sustainable, bioclimatic design.

All sections have been revised and updated for this third edition including all the most relevant developments affecting heat, light and sound controls. The book responds to the need of understanding beyond 'rules of thumb'.

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Information

Publisher
Routledge
Year
2014
ISBN
9781317918585
PART 1 HEAT: THE THERMAL ENVIRONMENT
CONTENTS
Symbols and abbreviations
List of figures
List of tables
List of worked examples
List of equations
1.1
Physics of heat
1.1.1
Heat and temperature
1.1.2
Heat flow
1.1.3
Humid air: psychrometry
1.1.4
Air flow
1.2
Thermal comfort
1.2.1
Thermal balance and comfort
1.2.2
Factors of comfort
1.2.3
Adjustment mechanisms
1.2.4
Comfort indices, the comfort zone
1.3
Climate
1.3.1
The sun
1.3.2
Global climate, the greenhouse effect
1.3.3
Elements of climates: data
1.3.4
Classification of climates
1.4
Thermal behaviour of buildings
1.4.1
Solar control
1.4.2
Ventilation
1.4.3
Steady state heat flow
1.4.4
Dynamic response of buildings
1.4.5
Application
1.5
Thermal design: passive control
1.5.1
Passive control of heat flows
1.5.2
Control functions of design variables
1.5.3
Climatic design archetypes
1.5.4
Condensation and moisture control
1.5.5
Microclimatic controls
1.5.6
Free-running buildings
1.6
Active controls: HVAC
1.6.1
Heating
1.6.2
Hot water supply
1.6.3
Ventilation and air conditioning
1.6.4
Open cycle cooling systems
1.6.5
Integration/discussion
Data Sheets and Method Sheets
SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS (SYMBOL, DEFINITION, UNIT)
asg
alternating solar gain factor
asp
aspect ratio
b
breadth, thickness
m
clo
unit of clothing insulation
dTe
sol-air excess temperature (difference)
K
er
evaporation rate
kg/h
f
response factor
k
linear heat loss coefficient
W/m.K
met
unit of metabolic heat (58.2 W/m2)
mr
mass flow rate
kg/s
p
pressure
Pa
pt
total atmospheric pressure
Pa
pv
vapour pressure
Pa
pvs
saturation vapour pressure
Pa
q
building conductance
(spec. heat loss rate)
W/K
qa
total admittance
W/K
qc
envelope conductance
W/K
qv
ventilation conductance
W/K
h
surface conductance
W/m2K
hc
convective surface conductance
W/m2K
hr
radiative surface conductance
W/m2K
sM
specific mass (per floor area)
kg/m2
sQ
swing in heat flow rate (from mean)
W
sT
swing in temperature (from mean)
K
t
time
hour
v
velocity
m/s
vr
volume flow rate (ventilation rate)
m3/s, L/s
vR
vapour resistance
MPa.s.m2/g
y
year
A
area
m2
AH
absolute humidity
g/kg
ALT
solar altitude angle
°
AZI
solar azimuth angle
°
C
conductance
W/m2K
Cd
conduction, conducted heat (from body)
W
CDD
cooling degree-days
Kd
CoP
coefficient of performance
CPZ
control potential zone
Cv
convection, convected heat (from body)
W
D
daily total irradiation Wh/m2
MJ/m2
Dv
daily total vertical irradiation Wh/m2
MJ/m2
DBT
dry bulb temperature
°C
DD
degree-days
Kd
DEC
solar declination angle
°
Dh
degree-hours
Kh
DPT
dew-point temperature
°C
DRT
dry resultant temperature
°C
E
radiant heat emission
W
EnvT
environmental temperature
°C
ET*
new effective temperature
°C
Ev
evaporation heat transfer (from body)
W
G
global irradiance
W/m2
GT
globe temperature
°C
H
enthalpy (heat content)
kJ/kg
HDD
heating degree-days
Kd
HL
latent heat content
kJ/kg
Hs
sensible heat content
kJ/kg
HSA
horizontal shadow angle
°
Htg
heating requirement
(kWh) Wh
INC
angle of incidence
°
Kd
Kelvin days
Kd
Kh
Kelvin hours
Kh
L
length (linear thermal bridges)
m
LAT
geographical latitude angle
°
M
metabolic heat production
W
Mb
body mass
kg
MRT
mean radiant temperature
°C
N
number of air changes per hour
ORI
orientation angle
°
Q
heat flux or heat flow rate
W
Qc
conduction heat flow rate
W
Qe
evaporative heat loss rate
W
Qi
internal heat gain rate
W
Qs
solar heat gain rate
W
Qv
ventilation heat flow rate
W
R
resistance
m2K/W
Ra-a
air-to-air resistance
m2K/W
Rc
cavity resistance
m2K/W
Rd
radiation, radiated heat (from body)
W
RH
relative humidity
%
Rs
surface resistance
m2K/W
Rsi
internal surface resistance
m2K/W
Rso
outside surface resistance
m2K/W
SD
standard deviation
SET
standard effective temperature
°
SH
saturation point humidity
g/kg
SI
Système International (of units)
T
temperature
°C
Tb
balance point (base~) temperature
°C
TIL
tilt angle
°
Ti
indoor temperature
°C
Tn
neutrality temperature
°C
To
outdoor temperature
°C
Ts
surface temperature
°C
Ts-a
sol-air temperature
°C
U
air-to-air (thermal) transmittance
W/m2K
V
volume
m3
VSA
vertical shadow angle
°
WBT
wet bulb temperature
°C
Y
admittance
W/m2K
α
absorptance, or thermal diffusivity
δ
v...

Table of contents