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Chemistry, Production, Processing, and Utilization

Lawrence A. Johnson, Pamela J. White, Richard Galloway, Lawrence A. Johnson, Pamela J. White, Richard Galloway

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eBook - ePub


Chemistry, Production, Processing, and Utilization

Lawrence A. Johnson, Pamela J. White, Richard Galloway, Lawrence A. Johnson, Pamela J. White, Richard Galloway

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About This Book

This comprehensive new soybean reference book disseminates key soybean information to "drive success for soybeans" via 23 concise chapters covering all aspects of soybeans--from genetics, breeding and quality to post-harvest management, marketing and utilization (food and energy applications), U.S. domestic versus foreign practices and production methods.

  • The most complete and authoritative book on soybeans
  • Features internationally recognized authors in the 21-chapter book
  • Offers sufficient depth to meet the needs of experts in the subject matter, as well as individuals with basic knowledge of the topic

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The History of the Soybean

Theodore Hymowitz, Department of Crop Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL 61801


The soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], together with wheat [Triticum aestivum L.], maize [Zea mays L.], rice [Oryza sativa L.], barley [Hordeum vulgare L.], sugarcane [Saccharum officinarum L.], sorghum [sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], potato [Solanum tuberosum L.], oats [Avena sativa L.], cassava [Manihot esculenta Crantz], sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.], and sugar beet [Beta vulgaris L.], are the principal food plants for humans (Harlan, 1992; Kasmakoglu, 2004).
Of the food plants, the soybean is unique in that the traditional foods in Asia made from the soybean (e.g., tofu, miso, and soy sauce) bear no semblance to or association with the crop growing in the field. The word soy comes from the Japanese word shoyu and first appeared in a Japanese dictionary published in 1597 (Shurtleff & Aoyagi, 1983). The popularity of tofu (bean curd) in China took place during the latter half of the Song Dynasty (960–1279 ce) (Shinoda, 1971). Miso is fermented soybean paste that originated in China around the first century bce. Today, Westerners refer to it by its Japanese name (Shurtleff & Aoyagi, 1983). The Chinese word for soy sauce is jiang-you. Supposedly, it originated prior to the Zhou Dynasty (before 211 bce) (Shurtleff & Aoyagi, 1983).
In the West, the two main products of the soybean are seed oil and the protein-containing meal. Soybean seeds contain 18–23% oil and 38–44% protein on a moisture-free basis. The oil is converted to margarine, mayonnaise, shortening, salad oils, and salad dressings. The meal is used primarily as a source of high-protein feeds for the production of pork, poultry, eggs, fish, beef, and milk. The soybean protein also is used in the form of protein concentrates and isolates, and texturized protein for human consumption (Hymowitz & Newell, 1981). Today, soy is taken for granted without appreciable forethought as to by whom, when, where, and how the soybean was domesticated in China for human use; by whom and when the soybean was disseminated throughout the world; and where the wild relatives of the soybean are and can they be exploited for the development of improved cultivars (Hymowitz, 2004). Unfortunately, the popular literature concerned with the historical development of the soybean is fraught with errors and misconceptions that keep recycling from one publication or Web site to another without proper documentation (Hymowitz & Shurtleff, 2005).
In the past, studies on the domestication of the soybean were extremely difficult for two main reasons: i) the soybean is autochthonous to the Orient, where Western scientists were at a linguistic disadvantage with respect to historical records. However, in the past 40 years, classical Chinese works were translated into English; establishment of international soybean symposia (e.g., the World Soybean Congress) enables Chinese and Western academicians interested in soybean history to meet and discuss common issues on a regular basis; and lastly, molecular studies on soybean germplasm resources are beginning to answer questions that were not asked previously; and ii) many libraries were loathe to permit research scholars to handle fragile pages of archived manuscripts, books, and newspapers. However, today commercial companies scan and digitize many key documents and place them on the Internet, and these documents are available on commercial and public Web sites, especially at large research institutions.
This chapter attempts to combine information from many disciplines to establish a solid foundation for understanding the history of the soybean.

The Genus Glycine and its Immediate Allies

The genus Glycine Willd. is a member of the family Fabaceae/Leguminosae, subfamily Papilionoideae, and tribe Phaseoleae. The Phaseoleae is the most economically important tribe. It contains members that have considerable importance as sources of food and feed, for example, Glycine max—soybean; Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.—pigeon pea; Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet—hyacinth bean; Phaseolus spp.—common bean, lima bean, tepary bean; Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC.—winged bean; and Vigna spp.—azuki bean, cow pea, and Bambarra groundnut (Hymowitz & Singh, 1987).
Within the tribe Phaseoleae, Lackey (1977a) recognized 16 genera of the subtribe Glycininae, which he subdivided into two groups, Glycine and Shutaria, based upon morphological alliances. The Glycine group is distributed in the Old World with the exception of Teramnus, which has a pantropical distribution. The Shuteria group represents all of the other Glycininae. Polhill (1994) transferred Calopogonium and Pachyrhizus from the subtribe Diocleinae sensu Lackey (1977a) to Glycininae and reorganized 18 genera within Glycininae (see Table 1.1.).
Table 1.1
Genera, Number of Species, 2n Number, and Geographical Distribution in the Sub-tribe Glycininaea
Genus No. of Species 2n Geographic Distribution
Amphicarpaea 4 20, 22, 40 Asia, Africa and North America
Calopogonum 9 36 South and Central America
Cologonia 9 44 Central and S. America, Mexico
Dumasia 10 - Asia, Africa
Diphyllarium 1 20 Indochina
Eminia 4 22 Tropical Africa
Glycine 25 38, 40, 78, 80 Asia, Australia
Mastersia 2 22, 44 Indo – Malaya
Neonotonia 2 22 Africa, Asia...

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